I am glad to report that both Brian and myself have now somewhat recovered from our yeast infections caused by eating 100 grams of Young's Dried Active Brewer's yeast. And our sugar levels have returned to better than they were before we took the yeast - thanks to Prof Hay of the London Bridge Hospital and thanks Dr Alex Wilkins and to St.Thomas' A & E and Bill Newshome in Infectious diseases and Miranda in Nutrition. However we both had very bad brewery syndrome/gut fermentation syndrome, wherein our gut acted as a brewery making alcohol from sugar and pushing up our blood sugar when the yeast was active. This yeast is a very obvious and unhidden form of diabetes. It is overt diabetes. It showed us how the disease really works in a really obvious manner. 

When we eat carbs, the yeast becomes more active and overgrows more and that drives up your fasting sugar. We can see the sugar go up on our continuous glucose monitors and we can hear the yeast causing us to burp when it is active. The burping and the sugar rise are coincident. The burping is the Carbon Dioxide from the fermentation process. If we control the yeast with a mild antifungal then eating carbs does not push our blood sugar up much if at all.

The whole premise of type2 is that it is caused by insulin resistance. Well certainly type 2 causes insulin resistance but insulin resistance is not the cause. It is a gut microbe which when it is fed with carb, multiplies, and then irritates the gut and that puts up the fasting sugar. This was very obvious with the active brewers yeast. It is hidden with the main cause of type 2 which is presumably a bacteria/yeast/microbe that infects rotten red meat (given how much an old ham sandwich will put up the blood sugar of a diabetic).

Whatever the microbe is, it is very prevalent in rotten red meat. DO NOT EAT REHEATED red meat. RECOOK IT!

Here is the logic that led us to a red meat eating gut microbe as the causative agent for type 2 diabetes.

1. If you eat a fresh steak your sugar will go up a bit. It you eat fresh steak mince or a steak burger it will go up a lot more. That is because mince has a much larger surface area for steak eating microbes to colonize and grow upon  So you are eating a lot more of the rotten meat eating microbes.

2. If you eat pork or beef sausage your sugar will go up a lot more than if you eat roast beef or roast pork. This is because you are eating old, non fresh, preserved, very large surface area, ground up meat. So the meat eating microbes have had time to grow and plenty of surface area to grow on

3. If you eat roast lamb your sugar will not go up much. If you eat reheated roast lamb the next day (not re roasted - just reheated) then it will go up more. This is because there are more meat eating microbes on reheated lamb than there were on the original lamb. The worst possible example of this is a donner kebab. The writer (Gordon) used to buy a large lamb donner and eat half of it. Then he would leave the other half in the fridge and reheat it and eat that the next day. There is what gave him type2. He was eating 99% bacteria and 1% lamb!

4. If you eat freshly cooked roast pork your sugar does not go up much If you eat a ham sandwich which has been lying around in a shop for days, then your sugar goes bonkers. This again is due to the diabetes causing microbes present in the preserved old ham in the sandwich.

Here is the logic that led us to yeast overgrowth in the gut as being the fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes

1. We ate 100 grams of live active Brewers Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) and our type 2 diabetes became almost uncontrollably bad. Every time the yeast became active - detected by the most obvious burping and farting of fermentation gasses from the upper (burping) or lower (farting) intestine - our sugar would go up. And then when the burping and farting stopped, the sugar would go down. It could not have been more obvious.

2. If a type 2 diabetic drinks some wine with a meal, his sugar does not go up as much as normal. Whereas if he drinks whisky, there will be no effect on his sugar rise due to the meal. This is because wine contains the antifungal agent, potassium sorbate, a mould resister. It is put into wine to stop it going off, since it is generally stored for years. Most type 2 diabetics know that a large glass of wine helps with their sugar. We discovered why. It is because Type2 is caused by a yeast, a mould, which the sorbate inhibits. We actually used potassium sorbate to fight the yeast infection. We took a gram off potassium sorbate in water. DO NOT DO THIS. It worked the first time, reducing our sugar to normal levels. The second time it worked less effectively. The 3rd time it did not work at all. The brewers yeast became resistant to the very large quantities were were eating. THIS DAMAGED OUR GUT FLORA. DO NOT TAKE POTASSIUM SORBATE.

3. The husband of a close friend of Gordon's was non diabetic and never like sweet things in his life until the age of 63, when he went mad for Stinking Bishop, the mouldiest cheese in the world. You can smell the stuff in the kitchen when you open the front door to your house. He ate huge amounts of it for a year. Then he went on holiday to a place where you could not get stinking bishop and his wife noticed that he started craving ice cream and sweet things which he had never done before in his life. He was always thirsty and drinking water like a fish. He was diagnosed as Type 2 diabetic when he returned home. He died of complications from Type 2 diabetes in 2018. He was killed my the mould in that cheese. The particular mould in the cheese may not be the precise causative agent for type 2. But all mould helps the moulds in the gut beat the bacteria and other microbes with which they compete. So his diabetic causing yeast started to overgrow, whilst his immune system was fighting the stinking bishop yeast.

4. Any type2 diabetic who has successfully managed to improve his sugar with a new supplement or dietary regime, will have found that the diabetes w ould fight back and after around 7 days he would be back where he started. That means type2 is not caused by a passive condition such a insulin resistance - which has no capability to fight back. It is caused by a living organism, which can fight back.

5. The writer has been eating way more Omega3 fat than Omega6 for over 7 years (triple strength fish oil and massive amounts of flax seed and chia seed bread and a small amount of rape seed oil). This helps but does not cure type 2. So type 2 is not caused by your cell membranes being made up of the wrong type of fat. For more on this see  - Insulin Resistance

6. THIS IS A CAST IRON MATHEMATICAL PROOF. But nobody has any confidence in maths these days. 

If a moderately to severely diabetic person eats 200 grams of sugar his blood sugar will go up say from 1 gram per litre (100 mg/dl) to 2 grams per litre (200 mg/dl). This means that each litre of his blood will contain twice as much sugar as normal. It will contain 1 gram more sugar than normal. So his entire body (which has 5 litres of blood), will contain 5 grams more sugar than normal. One teaspoon of sugar is all that it takes to double your blood sugar! But this means that the type 2 diabetic has successfully stored 195 grams of sugar, and has failed to store only 5 grams of sugar.

If that same diabetic eats only 100 grams of sugar, then his blood sugar will go to say 1.5 grams per litre (150 mg/dl). So he has failed to store 2.5 grams of sugar (and extra 0.5 grams per litre in 5 litres) and successfully stored 97.5 grams of sugar. But we know from the thought experiment above (or indeed from a real experiment) with 200 grams of sugar, that he has the capacity to store 195 grams of the stuff. So his sugar is NOT rising due to a lack of sugar storage capability. Neither is it rising due to insulin resistance, because he has enough insulin even with his level of insulin resistance to store 195 grams of sugar. He is simply not producing that insulin and not storing the sugar by metabolic choice. This shows that insulin resistance does not cause type 2. It is a result of type 2. The cause of type 2 is a hack of the body's sugar regulation mechanism by a yeast which eats sugar. The diabetic yeast is a true parasite. It turns you into a sugar factory for its benefit. 

We know that viruses hack our DNA or RNA to turn our cells into virus factories. Well, now we see that yeasts hack our metabolism to turn our cells into sugar factories!

If you feed your yeast overgrowth with 100 grams of sugar, it produces enough toxin to put your sugar up to 150 mg/dl. If you feed your yeast overgrowth with 200 grams of sugar it produces enough toxin to put your sugar up to 200 mg/dl. The way to pass an oral glucose tolerance test (eating 150 grams of sugar in the form of lucozade), is to dose up on antifungal first, to suppress the yeast, then drink the lucozade, then take some more antifungal. This prevents the yeast overgrowth being fed by the sugar and your blood sugar will not go up as much.

7. The writer (Gordon) has completely cured his type 2 by taking antifungals, His HbA1c is now 5.0% and he does not exercise at all and eats potatoes, bananas and chocolate cakes etc. Gordon and Brian have shown that moderate to severe type2 can be reversed (sugars number returned to normal) by diet and exercise. Yes, but that is not a cure. It can be cured (the yeast overgrowth erradicated) by strong antifungals within 2 months.

Itraconazole cured it temporarily (for 6 weeks after a 2 week course of 2x 100mg per day) but the yeast bounced back 6 weeks after the end of the course. 

CANDEX helped initially a lot. But was not able to finish the job (It is worth taking for perhaps 4 weeks at most).

CANDAWAY and cloves finished the job

The cure is to feed yourself - NOT the diabetes causing gut microbes! So you must take antifungals before and after each meal to prevent the yeast overgrowth from getting any of your food.

8. It is known that low carb diets are more effective than low calorie diets (and more sustainable) in putting type 2 into remission and reversing sugar numbers (neither can cure Type 2). This is because yeasts eat carbs, not fat and not protein.


Duration: 8 weeks Turkeytarian

Permitted food:

1. Eat one large or two medium meals per day and no snacking at all. 
2. No Vegetable oil at all except a small amount of organic rapeseed oil (the best vegetable oil for type 2 - rich in Omega3: Omega6:Omega3 is 2:1). 
3. No Nuts at all. No sugar at all.
4. No Dairy at all except butter. No animal fat except a small amount of turkey fat with your fried or roasted turkey.
5. 2 thick slices of flax seed and white chia seed bread per day
6. Eat 25-50 grams of spreadable butter which is butter with a small amount of rapeseed oil (such as Lurpak spreadable)  Do not eat butter containing any other type of vegetable oil.
7. 30 grams of WHITE chia seed, salba seed (not black chia seed), roasted at 105 centigrade for 80 minutes, then ground and mixed with 275 grams of water into a porridge. Then drink 200 grams of water with it. Store the white chia seed in a cold place (not the frigde). Only purchase it from retailers who store it cold such as Tesco or Sainsbury. Do not purchase it from Amazon or Ocado. Chia seed is like fish (very high Omega 3). It should be kept in the fridge (it is vegetable fish oil essentially).  Take the Orafti Inulin and the Bimuno supplements below mixed into the ground chia seed of the porridge.
8. Eat FRESH Turkey meat (least fat). And fry it or roast it well to remove most of the fat. Eat 300 - 500 grams per day of it. Eat no other meat. Do not eat tinned or smoked or otherwise preserved turkey meat. Do not eat turkey Bacon.
9. Eat at least 400 grams of spinach per day (for Vitamin A etc.)
10. Eat no raw food (it contains mould)

11. Permitted cooked vegetables are: 
French beans
Brocolli spears
Spring onion
Rocket, Parsley, Mint, Coriander (cooked only)


Permitted drinks
Green Tea


When you get up:
4 grams EPA from molecularly distilled triple strength fish oil (it is important to limit the amount of other carrier oils in the pill which will be full of Omega6)
4 grams DHA from molecularly distilled triple strength fish oil 
5,000 IU Vitamin D3
The curcumin from 2500 mg of Turmeric (with 10 mg of black pepper). (Oxford vitlaity is by far the best but is stored is awful cardboard pouches. Best to buy the small pouches and restore in small make up jars with screw tops.
400 mg Magnesium (we recommend Swanson premium triple magnesium complex - it stops all muscle cramps)
9 grams precisely  of Orafti ST Inulin, which is available from and manufactured by in Belgium (not insuljn but inulin which is a fructo-oligosaccharide)
one sachet of Bimuno (galacto-oligosaccharide) every day with the chia seed porridge. The oligosaccharides feed the good bacteria which bring your fasting sugar level down. You will notice the difference after 4 days.
2 Candaway tablets (Nature's best)
3 Cloves
500 mg of citric acid in a small glass of water (to remove traces of alcohol in the gut from yeast fermentation). Yeast loves Alcohol and makes it. We must eliminate it from our guts to beat the yeast.

Before each meal
2 Candaway tablets (Nature's best)
3 Cloves
500 mg of citric acid in a small glass of water (to removed traces of alcohol in the gut from yeast fermentation)

After each meal
2 Candaway tablets (Nature's best)
3 Cloves
500 mg of citric acid in a small glass of water (to removed traces of alcohol in the gut from yeast fermentation)

When you go to bed
The curcumin from 2500 mg of Turmeric (with 10 mg of black pepper). (Oxford vitlaity is by far the best but is stored is awful cardboard pouches. Best to buy the small pouches and restore in small make up jars with screw tops.
400 mg Magnesium (we recommend Swanson premium triple magnesium complex - it stops all muscle cramps)
2 Candaway tablets (Nature's best)
3 Cloves
500 mg of citric acid in a small glass of water (to removed traces of alcohol in the gut from yeast fermentation)

Exercise starting 2 hours after each meal.
30 mins on spin bike
OR 30 mins on rowing machine
OR 45 mins walk outside.

Alternate exercises as much as possible. Do not do the same one 3x in a row.

After 8 weeks you should be clinically non diabetic - in our experience. The writer can now eat what he wants and does not have to do any exercise at all. the yeast overgrowth that caused his type 2 had gone

Things to buy

0. Abbot Freestyle Libre Continuous Glucose Monitoring system (or other CGM system). You cannot fight something that you cannot see - 
1. Cheap but good rowing machine. Amazon do one by Viavito for £199 with free postage - and by JLL for £179 plus postage - 
2. Cheap recumbent spin bike Amazon do one by JLL for £129 - 
3. Access to a treadmill or get a treadmill
4, Kenwood chef kitchen mixer
5. Cheap but effective modern kitchen blender (or coffee/spice mill) - 
6. White chia seed. This is the most effective anti diabetic food. 

You will need to bake our flax seed and chia seed bread - it is really easy. On the first day I would eat nothing all day until dinner and then have the following

Typical 1 meal a day daily menu

2/3/4 thick slices of flax seed and chia seed bread, with spreadable butter, or pureed vegetable spread.


300-500 grams of turkey (breast or leg) fried in butter or roasted and tomatoes with fried Spinach or with steamed broccoli or with steamed sprouts or with steamed/fried Swiss Chard.


30 grams of roasted then ground WHITE chia seed (not black chia seed) with 275 grams of water mixed together into a porridge. Add the oligosaccharides to the porridge and mix them in. Then drink a further 200 grams of water with it. Store the white chia seed in a cold larder
Do not take more than 50 grams of raw white chia seed per day (with 500+300 grams of fluid). A Clinical trial showed no ill effects from 40 grams of white chia seed per day for 12 weeks. Black chia seed will give you kidney pain at a much lower intake. White chia is the most Omega3 rich food there is and by far the better choice.


Wait for 2 hours to give your body a change to absorb some sugar, like a normal metabolism. Then do 30 minutes on the recumbent spin bike pedaling at just below the point where you have to breathe through your mouth. Then at least a one hour gap then do it again. Then do it as many times as necessary to bring your sugar down to the desired level.

ALTERNATIVELY walk upon the treadmill as a brisk pace in the same pattern. 
ALTERNATIVELY row SLOWLY for 250 strokes 3x with a 10 minute break between the rows and then do 2x 24 minute sessions on the spin bike. This deploys all of your muscles. 

If you are using a treadmill you may have to walk (at a comfortable speed stretching yourself but not stressing yourself, just under the point where you have to start breathing through your mouth rather than your nose - this will be 50% of VO2 max) for 3 hours on the first day to get your sugar numbers to be half decent. Get the most impact absorbent trainers you can and use impact absorbing insoles inside then. I use 2mm Noenes in addition to Sorbothane pro insoles, PROTECT YOUR FEET. If your feet get blisters or sores they will heal very slowly due to type2. Your feet are your main weapon against type2. And it is as if type 2 knows this. It will mercilessly attack your feet. 

You have a choice
1. Recumbent spin bike - just slower than or at the point where you have to breath through your mouth
2. Rowing machine - SLOWLY
3. Treadmill - just slower than or at the point where you have to breath through your mouth

Those are the only exercises (other than walking outside) that have a large effect in our experience)

If you use a rowing machine then row slowly not quickly. Rowing quickly puts sugar up. Rowing slowly brings it down. This is not the case for the bike or the treadmill. They will reduce sugar even at a medium pace. Whereas a medium pace row will not reduce sugar. 

This has something to do with power muscles in the arms and legs verses endurance muscles of the core. Endurance muscles should be exercise slowly and repeatedly. Power muscles should be worked much harder. Toning your endurance muscles in your core appears to be the best strategy for type 2. It reduces sugar without burning too many calories. It is not stressful to do. 




The Majority of Type 2 diabetes is caused by a gut microbe (which we now identify as a yeast) with the capability to set your fasting sugar level. IT IS AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE. Low calorie diets are not the answer. Low carb diets, which starve the yeast of food, are closer to it. But really one needs to starve and kill the causative microbes in the Gut.  Diabetes causes hyperinflammation (more proinflammatory cytokines) during gram negative bacteremia - not immuno suppression. So it can be treated with immune suppression since it causes an 

"The metabolites from the gut microbes contribute to the gut barrier integrity and a compromised barrier leads to leakage of inflammatory mediators into systemic circulation and hence increases insulin resistance. Attempts have been made at correcting metabolic syndrome through dietary changes by altering the gut microbiota with some success. This report is an attempt to explain the hypothesis of compromised nutrition altering the gut microbiota, gut metabolites, gut barrier function, systemic inflammation and hence insulin response." - 

"In a recent study it was shown that abundance of the bacterial species Akkermansia muciniphila improved the metabolic profile of type 2 diabetic mice. A. muciniphila treatment reversed high-fat diet induced metabolic disorders, including fat mass gain, metabolic endotoxemia, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance. A.muciniphila administration increased the intestinal levels of endocannabinoids that control inflammation, gut barrier function including gut peptide secretion.21 It is becoming more evident that specific species of bacteria that are present in smaller numbers rather than a particular class or phyla of bacteria play a predominant role in disease incidence." -

Certain gut microbes cause low grade inflammation which causes an immune response which raises fasting sugar levels. That is the underlyhing cause of Type2 diabetes. High fibre diets promote gut bacteria which fight diabetes by reducing the immune/adrenaline/sugar response to the diabetic causing microbes. - a thorough review of ways to fix the large bowel and stimulate it to make short chain fatty acids and fight the low grade inflammation caused by the organisms responsible for T2DM.

Here is the paper which nails it all... 

In type 2 diabetes: "The proportions of the phylum Firmicutes and the class Clostridia are significantly reduced, whereas the class of the gram-negative Betaproteobacteria is highly enriched in the faeces of type 2 diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic individuals, and the proportion of Betaproteobacteria is positively correlated with plasma glucose levels [5]

Interestingly, the microbiome of type 2 diabetic patients are characterised by the depletion of several butyrate-producing bacteria, including Clostridium species, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis and Roseburia inulinivorans [4, 6, 7], and an enrichment of opportunistic pathogens [4]. Bacteria increased in the gut of type 2 diabetic patients also include the sulphate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio,as well as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus reuteri and 
Lactobacillus plantarum [6, 7]. 

Many articles have reported a correlation between changes in the gut microbiota and markers of type 2 diabetes. Lactobacillus species correlate positively with fasting glucose and HbA1c levels whereas Clostridium species correlate negatively with fasting glucose, HbA1c and insulin levels [6].

One study performed on a limited number of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease did not support the effect of ITF on insulin sensitivity [84].Short-chain-enriched inulin (10 g/day) caused a significant decrease in the levels of fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha and LPS) compared with maltodextrin in a trial of 52 overweight type 2 diabetes women over a period of 8 weeks [85]. In a study of the correlations between glycaemic control by ITF in obese women and gut bacteria, changes in Clostridium cluster IV group (which was increased by ITF) were negatively correlated with  fasting glycaemia, insulinaemia and HOMA-IR [86]."

Technically, nutritionally, this is what we now recommend.

1. Limit carbs to 40 grams per day
2. Avoid Omega6 polyunsaturated fat. It is inflammatory and causes insulin resistance. 
Avoid Omega 9 fat mono-unsaturated fat. It is less inflammatory but still causes insulin resistance.
Avoid all meat fat, it is inflammatory and causes insulin resistance.
Only eat the following fats and oils: Butter (saturated), Rapeseed oil (twice as much Omega3 and Omega6), and Omega 3 fish oil (EPA, DHA, DPA) and Omega 3 from chia seed and flax seed (Alpha linolenic acid - ALA)
3. Eat lots of chia and flaxseed bread and 30 grams per day of white chia seed porridge with water.
4. Take all the supplements described above.

This is a low carb, low vegetable fat, low animal fat, high non processed milk fat, high Omega3 fat, incredibly high fibre diet. 

We add to this a carb burning medium intensity exercise regime (after all meals at the end of the day). This will burn more carb grams than you have eaten. That fixes sugar levels. So the combined treatment is...

A Carb Negative Insulin Resistance Reducing Omega 3 and saturated fat only Diet and Exercise Regime!

Carbs raise blood sugar. Omega6 and Omega9 vegetable fats raise insulin resistance. Omega3 and Omega7 fats do not raise insulin resistance, they improve it. But Omega7 fats are only found naturally together with too much Omega9. Macadamia nuts are the purest natural source of Omega7. That is why if you are going to eat any nuts then Macadamias are the best (having almost no Omega6 and a lot of Omega7). But even Macadamias do cause insulin resistance due to their Omega9 mono fat content. Omega3 is only found in sufficient quantity to be beneficial in flax seed and chia seed. Only eat WHITE chia seed (salba seed). Do not eat BLACK chia seed (less carefully regulated than salba - causes higher sugar and intestinal pains and intestinal gas and kidney pain).

For the full nutritional breakdown see diabetic-index.html

It should take you a week of long hours of exercise every night after your last meal to get your spot sugar down to 5 mmol/L or 90 mg/dl.

Initially you may have to exercise for 2-3 hours each night. It takes a while to clear out all the excess sugar from all over your body. Eventually things will settle down at between 60 mins and 90 mins per night for perfect post exercise sugar depending upon how badly diabetic you have been. This timings assume no help from metformin.

If you are already on Metformin then you can fix your sugar with less exercise.

One Metformin tablet is roughly equivalent to 15 minutes of sugar reducing exercise. 

And that is the fix. We do not go low carb high fat. We go low carb low Omega6/9 fat, low animal fat, high butter, high short and long chain Omega3 fat. And we take anti inflammatory supplements which block delta 5 desaturase and fix the imbalance in our Omega6 metabolism caused by excess insulin which linearly up-regulates our delta 5 desaturase levels and therefore pushes our Omega6 metabolism to be inflammatory.

Get a continuous Glucose Monitoring device (CGM). The Freestyle Libre will be around 10% out on day 1. But it is pretty good from day 2-14 (within 5%). Each patch only works for 14 days. You should be able to fix your type 2 within 2 patches. 

Sami's Type 2 Diabetic Remission

Prior to diagnosis. 2/3 bottles of lucozade per day, 3 cans of coca cola per day, 4/5 pieces of coffee shop cake, and a snickers bar every day!!

Diagnosis Day1 (2014June10): Spot sugar 13.9 mmol/l, HbA1c 10.6% (92 mmol/mol). He had been fully diabetic for 2 months, normal weight, sedentary high stress fast food high carb lifestyle (London minicab company owner and driver 32 years old). His doctor told him he must go on Metformin immediately. He declined. Height 5ft 8Ĺ inches, 70 Kg. BMI 23.

Day2: He called me and I said walk for 20 minutes after every meal and stop eating sugar and carbs.

Day5 (2014June15): He came to see me after having partially followed my  instructions - his spot sugar was now 10.3 mmol/l (185 mg/dl). I told him to get on the treadmill. He walked for 30 minutes at 5.6 kph. Then his sugar was 7.1 mmol/l (128mg/dl). This astonished me because if I walk for 30 mins at 5.6 kph my sugar will go down by 1.5 mmol/l not 3.2. So then I said to hell with it, let's finish this, and he walked another 30 minutes at 5.6 kph for the first half and at 5.8 kph for the second half. This took his sugar down to 4.9 mmol/l (88 mg/dl). That astonished both of us. We had got his sugar to normal in one day. I then told him he must walk for 30 minutes after every meal on the treadmill at his local gym and he must eat a very low carb diet, nothing with more than 10% carbs in it.

Day11: He followed some of my instructions and walked for 30 minutes after every meal on the pavement not on the treadmill. He was still eating porridge for breakfast. His sugar was normally around 6.2 when he got up and around 6.2 after each walk. I told him he must walk upon the treadmill not upon the pavement.

Day18: Having walked upon the treadmill as instructed although still eating some porridge and drinking fully caffeinated coffee and having the odd wholemeal bread starbucks sandwich his sugar was now around 5.5 mmol/l (99 mg/dl) in the morning and after every walk. So now his diabetic symptoms have gone and he is clinically non diabetic as of June29. We will carry on with this program for another week and see what happens next. 

Day 30 (2014July15): Walking 30 minutes on the treadmill each day and a further 20 mins after dinner outside, for a total of 50 minutes per day, and eating a 100 carb gram per day diet (still eating porridge for breakfast - bad idea!) he now has a morning sugar of 5.2-5.5 mmol/L (94-99). So that is it. He is clinically cured and can maintain the cure on less than an hour's exercise per day with a 100 carb gram per day diet. He got there in 30 days.

Day 36 (2014July21): Starting a new regime for 4 weeks of walking 45 minutes on the treadmill once per day. Breakfast is porridge + milk in morning with a quarter of a grapefruit, and vegetable juice. Lunch Salmon or Sardines or Cod or Sea Bass + Salad, Green Tea or Mint Tea. Dinner: Peanut butter on low carb bread and salad and soup, or lamb chops and salad (kidney beans, cheese, cucumber, avocado, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, olive oil, vinegar), glass of semi skimmed milk. This is a weight maintaining diet.

Day 40 (2014July25): Regime is going fine. His morning sugar is still between 5.2 and 5.5 mmol/L (94-99 mg/dl) walking once for 45 minutes each day on the treadmill and taking a 100 carb gram per day diet.

Day 122 (2014October16). Sami had trouble with his feet ( I think the treadmill at his health club did not have good enough suspension). So his diet was OK but he has been unable for the last month to do much walking. Anyway his HbA1c results came in today and he was 40 mmol/mol or 5.8%. That is non diabetic. He is clinically cured. 5.8% is at the high end of the non diabetic range. 5.5% or below is the target in the writer's opinion. But anything at or below 6.0% is a clinical cure. So he is cured. He managed this by restricting carbs to 100 grams per day and by walking for 45 minutes per day on a treadmill for 3 months and could not manage any walking in the 4th month. He stopped exercising in the last 30 days due to pain in his feet. So there you are, a second type2 cure in 4 months with a limited amount of carb burning exercise and a low carb but not an ultra low carb diet. So it can be done relatively effortlessly if you catch type2 early enough. 

His doctor (having recommended drugs and even insulin) was amazed and asked him how he did it. He said low carb diet and exercise.

Joe's Type 2 Diabetic Cure

Joe had a fasting sugar of 9.0 in January 2014 and an HbA1c of 7.4%. He was mildly diabetic on diagnosis. He weighed 82 kg at the time. He made a decision to adopt the 5:2 intermittent fasting diet of Doctor Moseley, rather than a full Newcastle reversal scheme of Prof Taylor. He combined the diet with low carb and with HIT training every day. The results are a text book example of how to reverse diabetes.

Low Carb (50-60 grams per day)
4 days of 12-15 min HIT per week
3 days  of 40 minute weight lifting sessions per week
5:2 Intermittent fasting diet.
Plenty of Low Carb Australian Beer!

Date Fasting Sugar mmol/L Weight Kg Blood Pressure mm hg
Week1 7.5 82 133 
Week2 6.6 80 123
Week3 6.6 79 122
Week4 6.5 78 122
Week5 5.6 76 131 (sick - no HIT)
Week6 5.3 75 123
Week7 4.9 74 120
Week8 4.7 73.5 120
Week9 4.5 73 119

WOW! - Gordon. Joe only had mild diabetes. But he killed it completely with HIT, Low Carb and 5:2 fasting and Australian low carb beer in 9 weeks! (I have seen copies of his lab results). He used a Low Carb HIT 5:2 Newcastle reversal. Or putting it another way, he used a Carb Zero 5:2 Newcastle reversal. Very effective - so long as you are 18% above normal BMI to begin with. 

There is absolutely no drug that can do that!

I recommend moderate intensity exercise (brisk walking upon a treadmill). But Joe's results indicate that high intensity works just as well (as do the results of Mark Quade - see Testimonials). So at the end of the day you just have to burn off the carb grams that you eat it appears - one way or another (with moderate or high intensity exercise).

Vikas Singh Thakur's Astonishing Type 2 Diabetic Cure

Vikas has the most astonishing story that I could hardly believe before I saw his lab results.

Vikas was diagnosed on 15th Jan 2015. He was continuously so tired that he could not even walk 100 meters. His fasting sugar was 200 mg/dl and his post prandial sugar was typically 265 mg/dl. His HbA1c was 10.4%. His Vitamin D was only 12 (should be between 75 and 200). His doctor instructed him to start taking insulin immediately and he refused. Instead he took 3 diabetes tablets daily (Voglibose, Metformin and Gemer P1 - which is a combination of Pioglitazone, Glimepiride and Metformin).

Then he read this website and decided to go for it. His regime was 1 hour of brisk walking every day in hard sunlight after lunch and a 1 hour intensive workout in the gym along with the 3 tablets and a hell of a lot of Vitamin D (around 10,000 IU per day!) Then after a mere 10 days on this regime his HbA1c came down to 8.7%. He continued this regime for a further 20 days and on 15th Feb his HbA1c was 5.1%, his fasting sugar was 96 mg/dl and his post prandial sugar was 103 mg/dl. His doctor then reduced his diabetic medication to one tablet. So if this is to be believed then he reduced his HbA1c from 10.4% to 5.1% in 30 days. The reason that I have included Vikas' figures on the home page of this site is that first of all he sent me all 3 of his blood test results for Jan15, Jan26 and Feb15, and secondly I have now realised that HbA1c is not a 3 month blood sugar average, but is actually a 4 week blood sugar average weighted toward the most recent 2 weeks. This is very well explained on the American Diabetes Association website at...

"Hb = hemoglobin, the compound in the red blood cells that transports oxygen. Hemoglobin occurs in several variants; the one which composes about 90% of the total is known as hemoglobin A. A1c is a specific subtype of hemoglobin A. The 1 is actually a subscript to the A, and the c is a subscript to the 1. "Hemoglobin" is also spelled "haemoglobin", depending on your geographic allegiance.

Glucose binds slowly to hemoglobin A, forming the A1c subtype. The reverse reaction, or decomposition, proceeds relatively slowly, so any buildup persists for roughly 4 weeks. Because of the reverse reaction, the actual HbA1c level is strongly weighted toward the present. Some of the HbA1c is also removed when erythrocytes (red blood cells) are recycled after their normal lifetime of about 90-120 days. These factors combine so that the HbA1c level represents the average blood glucose level of approximately the past 4 weeks, strongly weighted toward the most recent 2 weeks. It is almost entirely insensitive to blood glucose levels more than 4 weeks previous.

In non-diabetic persons, the formation, decomposition and destruction of HbA1c reach a steady state with about 3.0% to 6.5% of the hemoglobin being the A1c subtype. Most diabetic individuals have a higher average bG level than non-diabetics, resulting in a higher HbA1c level. The actual HbA1c level can be used as an indicator of the average recent blood glucose level. This in turn indicates the possible level of glycation damage to tissues, and thus of diabetic complications, if continued for years."

With this new understanding of the true meaning of HbA1c, Vikas' figures are completely credible. So if you throw the kitchen sink at type 2. If you take the medication and if you go zero or negative carb by walking off all the carb grams you ingest and if you add some high intensity training 3x a week, then you may, like Vikas, be able to kill it dead in 30 days! 

Do not do High Intensity Training on the same muscle group every day. Do it every other day at most or it becomes counter productive. The muscles need to recover and rebuild themselves during the day after each session.

Brian's Type 2 Diabetic Cure


I first was aware of my diabetes 12 years ago whilst attending my annual Wellman clinic.
For the first year and a half I was able to manage the level with exercise and diet but it was steadily rising whilst being monitored by blood tests at the Doctors every 6 months .I was then placed on metformin and the dosage was gradually increased over the next 10 years to the point that 2 years ago I reached the maximum dosage of 4x 500mg metformin a day. During this period whilst I had changed my diet and had done a high level of exercise-this exercise reduced drastically and I noticed my average reading was steadily increasing
One year ago ,in august I had a Stroke .By this time I was also on 2 gliclazide tablets a day. I recovered from the Stroke with the only affect a 50 % reduction in my eyesight-at this time after a thorough inspection at St Georges I was placed on additional medication.

August 2017 to the 9th march 2018
In this period I monitored my blood sugar levels closely and had regular blood tests-these showed that my average reading was drifting down but at my last meeting with the doctor I had leveled off at 7. I was advised that if I couldnít get it down further I would be placed on Insulin. It was at this point that I decided to do something radical. That is when I called Sugar busters in the form of Gordon.

The objective is to obtain consistent average sugar levels of circa 4.5
Exercise is essential in reducing excess sugar levels .The amount of exercise required depends on the sugar level ability/age/fitness of the person-any aerobic exercises will suffice-running, walking ,cycling, rowing and any number of games and activities
Duration: Minimum 40 minutes does not have to be in 1 session it can split into 2 or 3 in 24hours
Intensity: Low, medium or high. On a standard rowing machines at mid tension. 26 strokes per minute is low.  36 is medium intensity. 48 is high intensity. Medium intensity is 50% VO2 max (you just have to breath through your mouth). 
Recommended is a total of 40 minutes of exercise at medium intensity. High intensity may increase the readings and take up 2 hours to get back to normal
Important The purpose of the exercise is to bring down the sugar level, the timing of the exercise is important and we recommend the following sequence;
Eat first meal, take Metformin at the end of the meal. Then, 1 hour later, do the exercise. 
Eat - Metformin - Exercise. Eat - Metformin - Exercise

Eat fresh produce only
Eat takeaways - they will send your levels soaring
Eat processed food sugar is everywhere
Drink sugary or sweetened soft drinks
Eat sauces and dressings they are full of sugar and Omega6 fat. 

The Base Level of your sugar

The body has a glucostat which regulates your sugar level. It is this which is broken with Type 2. This is apparent because is you eat a `100carb gram meals then you sugar will perhaps go up by 2 mmol/L which is 36 mg/dl which is 360 mg per litre which is 1800 mg per 5 litres which is 1.8 grams in you circulation. What that means is that you body has successfully stored 98.2 grams out of the 100 grams you ingested. And has failed to store only 1.8 grams. So type 2 is not an incapacity to pack away sugar. It is a incapacity to regulate sugar. Your body is choosing to leave sugar at 1.8 grams too much in circulation. Then if you burn that 1.6 grams off you body replaces it with another 1.8 grams and continues to do that for at least 30 minutes. This again is not an incapacity to store. It is a deliberate upregulation of your sugar levels What Brian has discovered is that you can reset your glucostat by going to sleep on a low sugar level. Sleep freezes you sugar level and resets you glucostat. 

If you get a continuous glucose monitor such as the freestyle libre you will see that if you fail to return your sugar to it most recent base line after a meal then it will return instead to a previously remembered base line. So if you have had a disaster which left your sugar overnight at 10. Then you are in danger of returning to that level. But is all your sleep levels for that last 10 days are 5.0. then if you have a big meal, the only base level available to you glucostat is 5.0.  So the trick is not merely to reduce your sugar level. It is to wipe the memory of high sugar level from your glucostat. One has to retrain one's glucostat. One cheap Chinese meal, one cheap processed ham sandwich, one large bowl of rice and your create a glucostat base leve memory that can screw you up for over a week. Whereas one meal of fresh meat with low carb veggies and non Omega6 inflammatory fats and a little bit of low intensity exercise or a metformin afterwards, will set a low base level which will help your sugar for the next week.

I started on Gordon's diet and exercise routine on 2018March24 (my HbA1c was stuck on 7% and my doctor said unless I can lower it I would have to go onto insulin injections). 4months later and my sugar is between 5 and 6 mmol/L on 3 Metformins per day (500mg) no gliclazide and 40 minutes of low intensity rowing (24 strokes per minute) every other day. 

White Chia Seed

At Gordon's recommendation, I tried some Chia seed as a porridge together with milk (100 grams). Unfortunately I chose black Chia seed which gave me the most awful wind and constipation and intestinal pain and bad kidney pain which lasted for several days. Being a slow learner and went to Gordon and he told me no it must be white chia seed. And you must take 12x the volume of fluid with the seed. So now I take 50 grams of white chia seed ground up in a coffee grinder with 400 grams of milk and then add a couple of glasses of water. White Chia seed porridge with a strawberry or raspberry or blueberry or blackberry either sliced or ground is perfect! White Chia seed has the highest Omega3 fat of any food. It therefore is perfect for type 2 subject to sufficient fluid intake. That was a great clinical trial done with Wistar rats which were given type2 by a sugar diet,  and then cured by a white chia seed diet. So if you turn yourself into a Wistar rat. Then perhaps you can fix your type? I n my experience Chia helps but does not fully cure type 2. (Milk is no good  - it encourages the bad bacteria - editor)

Internal Organ Circulation 

It appears that exercising the stomach muscles helps the circulation to your glucostat, which possibly improves its effectiveness. We have found that sugar is better for longer after stomach muscle exercise than it is after leg muscle or arm muscle exercise. We need to do more research into this phenomenon.

My Type 2 Diabetic Cure

I was diagnosed on November28, 2012, with a spot sugar of at 23 mmol/l (414 mg/dl), a fasting sugar of 18.0 mmol/L (324 mg/dl) and an HbA1c of 11.4% and BMI of 26.7. I had been extra thirsty for two years and had had neuralgia in the 4th toe of my right foot for 12 months - which I mistook for an in growing toenail. So I was very badly diabetic type 2. I had plenty of insulin but no glycogen storage space in my muscles and I had significant insulin resistance (I still have no idea what the real cause of this is. It is initiallly caused by high sugar and high insulin. But reducing them both back to normal for 2 years in my case has not completely fixed it - although it has improved it. Insulin resistance is not caused by microvascular capillary atherosclerosis caused by AGEs - Advanced Glycation End products - because some severe diabetics just do not get this and therefore have no peripheral neuralgia).

Here is a letter from my Doctor confirming my journey as of July 20, 2015...


Private & Confidential

19 December 2013

Mr Gordon Ritchie

By Email:

Dear Mr Ritchie,

It was a pleasure to catch up with you again the other day.  I thought the research you have performed in relation to diabetes and muscle mass was very interesting.  You have successfully cured the diabetes which was identified in November 2012 by a combination of diet and exercise.  Originally the random blood glucose was 18 with a haemoglobin A1c of 11.4% (101 mmol/mol).  You told me that you had also been found to be deficient in vitamin D and had been taking a supplement, although at a relatively low dose by the sounds of things. 

I am pleased to inform you that your haemoglobin A1c is now 5.3% (35 mmol/mol).  This is well within the normal limits.  Your lipid profile is favourable with regards to future risks of heart disease with a total cholesterol of 3.9, 31% healthy HDL (absolute value 1.2), leaving an LDL of 2.2.  The only fly in the ointment is the vitamin D level is still low at 36.

Congratulations.  You know that you need to keep it up.  I think you need a significantly increased dose of vitamin D and would suggest for a month that you take 2000 international units daily (available over the counter) before reducing the dose back to 1000 international units daily.

Merry Christmas and happy New Year.

Best wishes.

Yours sincerely,


GMC reference number 2709985


Here are my latest blood test results showing my HbA1c on 2015July20 at 5.1% or 32 mmol/mol and my Vitamin D at 143 nmol/L. I had been taking 5,000 IU of Vitamin D3 per day for several months.

Here are my continuous blood sugar results as measured by the Abbott Freestyle Libre Continuous Glucose Monitoring device for the week of August 21-27, 2017



Type2 Diabetics Have a Corrupted Fat Metabolism

The solution is to be very specific about what fats you eat and what fats you do not eat. Do not just eat less carb and more fat. That will definitely put your insulin resistance up. It did with me for 3 years notwithstanding the perfect non diabetic sugar numbers I had due to all the exercise and the low carb diet. The good fats for a diabetic are fish based Omega3 anti-inflammatory fatty acids and plant based Omega3 (alpha linolenic acid) from flax seed and white NOT BLACK chia seed and butter, and that is it. The bad fats are sat fat from meat (particularly palmitic acid) and Omega9 mono fat (which is a lot less harmful) and Omega6 poly fats which are not a problem in moderation for normal people but are a disaster for type2 diabetics whose increased insulin up-regulates their desaturase enzymes to the point where their Omega6 metabolism ceases to be balanced and becomes inflammatory which causes insulin resistance. Industrial Trans fat is of course also a total disaster for everybody, whereas ruminant trans fat such as in meat and dairy is perhaps only slightly worse than sat fat. 

It does not seem to matter what type of Omega6 you eat. It all manages to end up as Arachidonic Acid which is the most inflammatory fat there is. 

If high insulin resistance persists for months then capillary plaque may also start to form. But the writer has had type for around 10 years (6 of which were undiagnosed) and even now his non fasting insulin resistance appears to be more related to inflammation than plaque (cholesterol is fine). Inflammation has a larger effect upon capillaries than it does upon larger vessels. If you thicken up the wall of the small capillary it will seriously restrict its already small diameter. Whereas if you thicken up the wall of a larger vessel the internal diameter of that vessel will not change so drastically. The inflammatory part of that response is multiplied by the western diet which is far too rich in pro inflammatory Omega6 fats and far to poor in anti inflammatory Omega3 fats (typically around 20:1 when it should be 1:1 for a normal person and 1:2 for a type 2 diabetic and 1:4 up as far as 1:7 for an eskimo).

The modern day American has a blood Omega6:Omega3 ratio of around 10:1. The traditional Eskimo has 1:7 the other way around. Eskimos on their traditional diet get neither type 2 diabetes nor coronary heart disease.

Technically: Omega6 is mainly present in food as linoleic acid (18:2ω6) which is converted by the body to AA (Arachidonic Acid, 20:4ω6). Whereas Omega3 is mainly present as alpha linolenic acid (18:3ω3) which is converted by the body to EPA (20:5ω3). The ratio of AA to EPA in your blood determines your inflammatory response. This is easy to fix. Mine as of 2016November is 0.78, which is around the level of a traditional Japanese fish diet consumer. The healthy male body only converts around 8% of the ALA available to EPA. The healthy female body converts around 20%. The same figures apply to conversion of LA to DGLA and to AA in the Omega6 pathway. So in theory one gram of EPA will defray 12Ĺ grams of Omega linoleic acid from food in men and 5 grams in women. I have not found that to be true in practice. This is because I am type 2 diabetic and therefore have higher insulin levels and therefore have higher desaturase levels and the desaturases are the rate limiting enzymes in both the Omega3 and the Omega6 pathways. I would say I gram of EPA protects against perhaps 5 grams of LA for a type 2 male diabetic like me. For a female it will be worse since they have more desaturases in the first place. 

So by taking 5 grams of EPA per day (and 5 grams of DHA to balance it), one is actually only protected against around 10 grams of Linoleic Acid (LA) if male (in my experience). It will be worse if female (since women have higher desaturase levels). So that is how dangerous Omega6 fat is to a type 2 diabetic.  Hence having fish on Friday and cod liver oil every day is not such a bad idea. Because type2 diabetics have higher insulin levels and so have higher levels of the enzymes which catalyse the synthesis of EPA and AA, males may convert 16%/24% or more of LA to AA and type2 diabetic women up to 50%. It all depends upon how high your insulin is, and that depends on how bad your insulin resistance is and that is the true measure of how diabetic you are. 

So we need to go Eskimo, since they eat 4x-7x as much Omega3 as they do Omega6 on their traditional seafood diet. Eskimos on their traditional diet get neither Coronary Heart Disease nor type 2. Whereas westerners eat more than 20x more Omega6 than Omega3 on their traditional fast food diet.  But taking one or two or three regular strength or even triple strength Omega3 pills per day will absolutely not fix type 2. Eskimos eat around 15 grams total of EPA and DHA per day with little or no Omega6. And on that diet no Eskimo ever became diabetic because it is entirely anti inflammatory. If you have type 2, then your muscle cell membranes will be made up of the wrong fats and so are your blood cell membranes. 

For a fairly full explanation of the cause of Insulin Resistance please see our insulin resistance page.

For the full breakdown of the inflammatory or anti inflammatory effect of 16,417 foods taken from the US, the UK, the Australian and the Norwegian national databases please see our Diabetic Index Table.

Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and high blood sugar are caused by a failure of your body to store post prandial sugar as glycogen in your liver and in your muscles - due to insulin resistance cause by inflammation and by excessive glucagon mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis - that is to say an excessive overproduction in the liver of sugar from excess protein that you have eaten. The liver will stop overproducing if you get the diet and exercise routine right (mine no longer does).

In lay man's terms, either your sugar warehouse is too small due to muscular degeneration from a sedentary high carb lifestyle, or your muscle cell insulin receptors are gummed up with Omega6, which is preventing insulin from doing its job in your muscle cells or your fork lift truck is driver inside your muscle cell is unable to do much work because the whole warehouse if full of toxic waste products (reactive oxygen species) resulting from metabolic overload or the roads supplying your sugar warehouse are blocked due to vascular sclerosis. You have a logistical problem with sugar. But glucose intolerance is not the cause of Type2. It is a symptom of the disease.

With Type2 your body gets caught in a feedback loop. Higher sugar leads to all of the above causes getting worse which leads to even higher sugar. Then after a few months of this disaster, secondary complications begin. These include retinal blindness, kidney failure, neuralgia (pins and needles in your nerves due to poor blood supply to them), poor peripheral circulation (in the feet and hands) - which if left untreated can lead to amputation, lower skin resistance to infection and slow skin healing from cuts and bruises, skin bacterial infections such as erythrasma, and skin fungal infections such are ringworm and thrush. Then as the vascular sclerosis progresses from the smaller vessels in your skin to the larger vessels in your body, you can get heart attacks and strokes which can kill you. Incidentally type 2 causes impotence in the majority of men since potence requires good blood circulation and sensitive nerves in that area.

That is the bad news.
Now here is the good news.

You can absolutely stop Type2 progressing by going on a carb negative diet and exercise regime. This is conceptually quite simple to grasp but requires effort to implement in your life. 

The way to lose weight is to burn more calories with exercise then you eat in a day.
The way to lower blood sugar is to burn more carb grams that you eat and can store in a day.

A non diabetic person who eats 100 grams of carbohydrate will store the resulting glucose as glycogen in his muscles and in his liver within 2 the hours following his meal and then use that stored energy keep his muscles and body going until the next meal. A Type2 diabetic cannot do that. So what we have to do is burn the glucose that we cannot store with post prandial exercise (exercise after the meal). So instead of storing it, we burn it. It is that simple. And we should burn it at the same time that a non diabetic person would be storing it - i.e. as soon as possible after the meal. I have a treadmill. And after each meal I jump on that and watch something on youtube or an iplayer or Amazon prime or whatever.

If you eat a low carb meal and exercise straight after it then you fix your sugar and diabetes will stop progressing and start regressing. 

Diabetes progresses when HbA1c is above 6% and regresses when HbA1c is below 5.5%. Diabetes goes into regression (desugarization) the minute you take your blood sugar below 6.0 mmol/L or 108 mg/dl and it goes into progression (resugarization) the minute you sugar rises to 7.0 mmol/L or 126 mg/dl. Type 2 diabetes cure and reversal can be achieved through Ketosis resulting from a carb negative diet and exercise regime. Any sufficiently carb negative diet and exercise regime will significantly outperform all the following drugs: Metformin, Victoza, Januvia, Glipizide, Lantus, Janumet, Glimepiride, Humalog, Actos, Invokana, Diamicron, Amaryl, Pioglitazone, Onglyza, Gliclazide, Lucentis, Byetta, Galvus, Acarbose, Forxiga, NovoRapid, Exenatide, Apidra, Liraglutide, Repaglinide, Actrapid, Eucreas, Glucobay, Saxagliptin, Vildagliptin, Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin, Prandin. These drugs can get your HbA1c down to 6.5% at best (which is well managed but still diabetic). A Carb negative diet and exercise regime can get it down to 5% which is non diabetic. With an HbA1c of 5% your diabetes is in full regression. With an HbA1c of 6.5% it is in slow progression. 

I have been doing this for 4 years now (as on November 2016) and so have many readers of this site. We have all reversed diabetes in the sense that is no longer progressing and we will not get any further complications. In my case my peripheral neuralgia in my feet has all but gone. I can walk around barefoot with no problem, which is impossible for people with neuralgia. My HbA1c is totally normal at 4.6% which is 26 mmol/mol. My blood sugar is totally normal around 4.4 mmol/L which is 80 mg/dl. My fasting insulin resistance is also normal as of early 2017. But I am still diabetic presumably due to no fasting insulin resistance or in my recent opinion due to having a bacteria in my gut which causes this disease. I think perhaps I am a machine for producing sugar for an intestinal parasite.

 When I first got my treadmill in mid 2013, I had to walk 180 minutes per day for imperfect but OK sugar (I was severely diabetic). Then by 2015, I only had to walk for 105 minutes per day for perfect sugar. But in January 2016, I was walking for 140 minutes per day and realised that something was going wrong. I then started treating my insulin resistance as well as my blood sugar and within 4 weeks I only had to walk for 105 minutes per day once more. Now, as of November 2016, I only have to walk for around 75 minutes per day. So I am very nearly there. The immoveable boulder has now been rolled back almost to the beginning - see Insulin Resistance.

Orthodox Medicine Cannot Yet Cure Fix Or Reverse Type 2 Diabetes.

Drugs can reduce your HbA1c (Glycosylated Haemoglobin level - 1-2 month blood sugar average) by around 1% in the medium term (according to their clinical trial results). But that is not enough to put diabetes into regression. All the drugs will do is slow down the rate of progression of the disease. To put the disease into regression you need to get your HbA1c down to 5.5%. Generally Diabetics have an HbA1c of anything from 7% to 12%. So you need to reduce your HbA1c not by 1% but by at least 1.5% and normally by 2%-5%. No drug combination can yet do that without lifestyle change as well. So drugs will buy you a bit of time. But they will not cure you unless you are prepared to help them and cure yourself with some lifestyle improvement. 

The only way to achieve a type 2 diabetes cure, a full reversal, generally, is by going on a carb negative diet and exercise regime. You must burn off more carbohydrate than you eat - with carb burning exercise. So the cure is to go on a very low carb diet (we recommend 40-50 carb grams per day maximum) - see and see and to go on a brisk walk after every meal (preferably upon a treadmill) to burn off the carbs you have just eaten and the new glucose that your liver has made from the protein you have just eaten by hepatic gluconeogenesis. 

The fastest way to fix your sugar is to stay on the drugs initially and change your lifestyle by going Carb Zero or Carb Negative. Then, once your fasting sugar and your HbA1c is fixed, you can start reducing the drugs down to zero in consultation with your doctor. If you stay on any drugs for too long without getting your sugar low enough to put diabetes into regression, they will start to be less and less effective and you have to take more and more of them until your become insulin dependent as your pancreatic beta cells progressively fail. Please do not let that happen. Change your lifestyle. You will feel better, you will be better and you will live much longer. 

Here is the golden rule...

Diabetes Progresses when your spot sugar is above 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl), (HbA1c above 6%)
Diabetes Regresses when your spot sugar is below 6.0 mmol/L (108 mg/dl), (HbA1c below 5.4%)

And here is the philosophy for a diabetic...

Carbs are poison. Exercise is the antidote! 
Mono fat (Omega9) and Omega6 Poly fat and animal fat are the poisons. Omega3 poly, Omega7 poly and butter are the antidote! 

Take the antidote every time you take the poison, and take it as soon as you can after poisoning yourself. Excess Carbohydrate over and above what the brain needs to keep functioning (which is around 75 carb grams per day)  is 100% poison. Some fats are poisonous and others are not. Protein is around 50% poisonous due to hepatic gluconeogenesis (the liver will turn around half of it into carbs on a very low carb diet). Type1 diabetics are advised to treat protein like half the amount of carb when calculating how much insulin is required. Do not worry about eating a high fat low carb eskimo diet. Excess carbs cause weight gain and cardio vascular trouble not excess fat - however counter intuitive that may seem or feel. Low fat foods have resulted in an epidemic of fatness. What we need is low carb foods! 

This is all is easy to say (although it was not so easy to deduce) - but extremely difficult to do (until you know how). However the writer has done it and he was badly diabetic and not obese at diagnosis on 2012November26 (spot sugar was 23.0 mmol/L 414 mg/dl and HbA1c was 11.4% with a BMI of 26.7). Also a friend of his has now done it completely in just one month following our latest techniques. He was diagnosed on 2014June10 with spot blood sugar of 13.9 mmol/l (250 mg/dl) and HbA1c of 10.6%, and had been extra thirsty for 2 months prior to that - so we assume he had been fully diabetic for 2 months. And  many readers of this site have done it and written in with their results - see testimonials.

We must make one thing clear. It does not matter how your reduce your HbA1c down to 5.4%. You can take every drug in the book and eat no carbs and sit on your butt all day long. You can eat a half a chocolate cake every day, take no drugs at all, and go jogging for 2 hours after the cake. You can combine any mixture of drugs exercise and diet you like. 

But you MUST get your 2 hour post prandial sugar down to 6.0 mmol/L, 108 mg/dl (without post prandial exercise)
Then you MUST get your fasting sugar down to 5.2 mmol/L, 94 mg/dl every morning
Then you MUST get your HbA1c down to 5.4% and keep it below there. 

Do not become a spectator at you own personal sugargeddon. Take some action!

The writer is not against diabetic drugs. He is just pointing out that they will not, by themselves, stop diabetes killing you. They will not, by themselves, stop you developing painful and debilitating diabetic complications. Do whatever combination of drugs and exercise and low carb dieting works for you. Drug assisted diet and exercise is fine (although certain drugs carry the risk of hypos with high intensity exercise). However for those of you who, like the writer, are wary of the profit driven offerings from the modern pharmaceutical industry, the good news is that diet and exercise are more powerful and more effective than drugs in the case of type 2 diabetes and further, that a sufficiently carb negative diet and exercise regime will in our experience immediately put diabetes into regression without the need for any drugs at all.

The writer cannot over emphasize that it is not in general the case that merely by losing weight you can reverse type 2. A Low Carb Ketogenic diet is for a fact more beneficial than a Low Calorie Diet even if you were obese upon diagnosis - see and see . If you were clinically obese and only slightly diabetic at diagnosis, then losing weight should do it. But type 2 is caused by your body having insulin resistance and insufficient glycogen storage capacity in its skeletal muscles for your typical carbohydrate consumption and some kind of endocrine system fault/cerebral sugar addiction which causes the liver to make too much sugar or not store enough of it as glycogen. It is not caused by being fat. Being fat just increases your metabolic load and so requires your body to have a larger glycogen battery. 

If you diet below a BMI of 24 for a man or below a BMI of 22.5 for a woman then you are just eating up your own muscles. But these are critical in storing sugar as glycogen and preventing diabetes from progressing. Sami, a friend of the writer, was fixed in 30 days with no weight loss whatsoever. The writer himself made the mistake of following the Newcastle Reversal concept that if you lose 15% of you body weight you cease to be diabetic. He lost more than that and destroyed his muscles and locked myself in a weak and sick and diabetic state for months. It was a DISASTER. The Newcastle Reversal Technique (low calorie weight loss diet alone) only works on really obese people who were mildly diabetic on diagnosis. Prof Taylor chose people with an average BMI on 33.6 and a fasting sugar of 9.2 mmol/L (166 mg/dl). My BMI was 26.7 on diagnosis and my fasting sugar was 18.0 mmol/L (324 mg/dl) and I dieted down to a BMI of 21.0. I mistakenly thought that there was a weight at which I would become non diabetic. Nothing could be further from the truth. Weight loss only helps if you were very overweight upon diagnosis.  

Around 100 grams or 1/6th of your glycogen is stored in the liver and around 500 grams or 5/6th of it is stored in your muscle cells - see So eliminating all the fat around your liver by losing weight is unlikely to fix the problem as Prof Taylor of Newcastle University suggests. I tried it. I went from 176 lbs to 138 lbs in 14 weeks. This improved my diabetes to the point where I could almost pass a 50% OGTT. But it did not fully reverse my diabetes. In fact it damaged me and increased my neuralgia, by eating away some of my muscle tissue. Also diabetics who have liver transplants from non diabetic donors remain just as diabetic with their new liver - So the liver is not the cause of diabetes. In general to fix type 2 you need to fix not only your diet and your weight but also your muscles and your insulin resistance and your cerebral sugar addiction. In my case I had to reverse 30 years of muscular degeneration caused by a high carb sedentary lifestyle! That does not happen overnight and there is no pill which gives you fitness. Neither can it be achieved by diet alone. As of August 2014 my BMI is now 23.5, which is still a little low given the amount of muscle I have put on from brisk treadmill walking and pull ups. 

For mankind's latest understanding of "The Role of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Breakdown for Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Exercise" published in Frontiers in Physiology in December 2011 - see

3 Lecture series on how to clinically Reverse Type 2 Diabetes with diet and exercise

First Lecture Notes

Prevalence: There are 3 million diagnosed diabetics in the UK and 350 million worldwide. 33% of those over 50 have it and another 1 million in the UK have it undiagnosed. 1/7th of all NHS spending is related to Diabetes. It is an epidemic

Health risks: Kidney failure, hearts attack, stroke, blindness, impotence, fungal and bacterial skin infections, peripheral neuralgia, foot amputation due to poor circulation, Excessive tiredness, bad temper due to high sugar.

The fixes:
Here is what we cannot yet do. We cannot cure type 2 to the point where you can eat half a chocolate cake for 2 meals in a row and keep your sugar below 7.5 mmol/L
Here is what we can do.
1. We can improve your type 2 to the point where you can eat half a chocolate cake and not have your sugar go above 7.5 mmol/mol (I can do that)
2. We can reduce your HbA1c to absolutely normal - mine is 5.0% and has been below 5.3% for 5 years,. Non diabetic is 4% to 5.7% prediabetic is 5.7% to 6.4% Diabetic is 6.5% and above.
3  We can return your insulin resistance to normal.
4. We can prevent any further type 2 diabetic complications  Studies have shown that these do not occur with HbA1c under 6.5% (the diabetes diagnosis threshold). .
5. We can improve them or eradicate reversible complications such as peripheral neuralgia and bad foot circulation - I no longer have painful peripheral neuralgia in my feet.

Mechanism of type 2 reversal: This is very simple to state.

1. We eat the right type of food and supplements (and drugs)
2. We do the right type of exercise.
3. We avoid the wrong type of food and supplements (and drugs)
4. We avoid the wrong type of exercise.

Diabetic Mathematics

40 years ago my father, who was the professor of surgery at the Royal London Hospital in Whitechapel and the Dean of the medical school, can home and said: They have discovered that to lose weight all you have to do is burn more calories than your take in. Prior to that time, nobody knew that equation. We used to think that to lose weight you should eat less fat or something. This was a revelation to my Dad at the time.

1 gram of fat has 9 kcals
1 gram of alcohol has 7 kcals
1 gram of protein has 4 kcals
1 gram of carbohydrate has 4 kcals

Our losable weight is 25% muscle and 75% fat . One pound (454 grams) of losable flesh has around 113.5 grams of protein (454 kcals) and 340.5 fat grams of fat (3064 kcals) making 3518 kcals altogether

So weight loss in pounds = (kcals consumed - kcals burned)/3518

4 years ago I realised that there was a carb grams equivalent for Type2 diabetics to the weight loss equation for fat people. Crudely speaking it was the case that

Blood sugar = carb grams consumed - carb grams burnt.

Things are a little more complicated than that. The full equation is

Spot sugar reduction in grams per total blood volume (5 Litres) = carb grams in + carb grams produced by hepatic gluconeogenesis - carb grams burnt - carb grams stored as glycogen in muscle - carb grams stored as glycogen in the liver

But the basic equation of blood sugar equals carbs in less carbs burnt serves well enough to fix type 2.

Blood Sugar Revelation

The trouble with medicine and with mankind in general is that he always overcomplicates simple issue in order to protect his professional position and make his expertise unassailable. Over complication is the modern day wall around the castle or our professional expertise. So blood sugar is measured in millimoles per litre in the UK and in milligrams per decilitre in the US. And HbA1c is measured in mmol/mol rather than in percent which people actually understand.

With this in mind let us consider how much sugar a non diabetic person has flying around in his blood stream.

5.55 mmol/Litre is 99.9 mg/dL = 999 mg per litre = 1 gram per litre.

Now there is a number that we all can understand. 1 grams per litre. So in our entire 5 litre blood stream we have 5 grams of sugar when our sugar is 5.55 mmol/L.

So the total amount of sugar in your entire blood stream is ONE TEASPOON. That is it.

And now we are in a position to see what causes type 2.

The cause of Type 2

Imagine you eat a 2000 kcal meal with 200 grams of carb. Being diabetic your sugar will rise by about 3 mmol/L as a result of the meal. This is 0.54 grams per litre. so in our entire 5 litre blood stream you have 2.7 grams more carb. This means that you have stored successfully 197.3 grams of carb and failed to store 2.7 grams of carb. So type 2 is not caused by an inability to store sugar. It is not caused by insulin resistance. If you are capable of storing 197.3 grams of carb then you are capable of storing 200 grams. Indeed is you are a 2200 kcal meal with 220 grams of carb you would have stored around 216 carb grams.

You body failed to stored the final 2.7 grams of carb not because it could not store it, but because it chose not to store it. It was instructed not to store it. Your glucose thermostat, your glucostat is defective. That is type 2.

A non diabetic after a meal will have one teaspoon of sugar in their entire bloodstream. A diabetic will have one and a half teaspoons of sugar. That is the difference. That is not an inability to store half a teaspoon of sugar. It is a choice by the sugar regulation mechanism of a diabetic.

Your base sugar level and your sugar level elasticity

A non diabetic person has a base level sugar of 4.5 mmol/litre or 81 mg/dL or 0.81 grams per litre. Here is a graph of the daily sugar value of non diabetic people.

Think of the base level as an anchor which is fixed deep in the mud and the spot sugar level as a buoy attached by an elastic band to that anchor. A meal will pull the buoy upwards and then the anchor and the elastic band will bring the ball back down again after the meal. The elastic band represents your insulin production and insulin resistance.

With type 2, two things happen.

A. The base level glucose anchor gets pulled right out of the deep mud and floats around above the mud for a while and may or may not resettle in the shallow mud - depending upon how you manage your type 2.
B. The elastic band becomes weaker (this is caused by insulin resistance and/or insulin underproduction)

If you fix item B as I have done. You still remain diabetic due to item A. My elastic band is fine. My sugar rises no more than a non diabetic after a meal. But once it has risen it does not return properly to 4.5 mmol/L because my anchor is lodged in the shallow mud. my baseline sugar level is still too high

With this analogy we can see what the difference between prediabetes and diabetes really is.

1. A prediabetic is someone who stretches his elastic band but does not dislodge his base level anchor
2. A diabetic is someone whose base level anchor has been pulled out of the mud completely.

And now we can also see how to fix type 2. We need to strengthen the elastic band and we need to reattach our base level anchor deep in the mud.

We can tell you how to do B. I have have done this as a diabetic, my brother has done it as a prediabetic who is no longer a prediabetic. Several readers of my website have done this. Brian is half way through doing it as a diabetic.

We can tell you how how to lodge your base level glucose anchor in shallow mud and improve item A. We do not as yet know how to return your anchor to its original position in the deep mud. We need your help in that research. There will of course be a way to do it. We need to find that way in order that we can all eat chocolate cake again without dying of terrible diabetic complications.

How to reset your sugar base level - to recast your anchor

You base sugar level is the level that your sugar returns to after a meal and after the body has stored the sugar from that meal. Non diabetics just have a base level of 4.5 mmol/l (81 md/dL). Diabetics have a base level which entirely depends upon the recent lows and recent sleeping sugar levels. So to reset your base sugar level to 5.0 or at 6.0 mmol/L you have to go to bed with sugar actually below that level for as many days as it takes to stick. The number of days appears to be around 3. 3 nights of 5.0 or should fix your base level at 6.0 mmol/L. As you improve your diet and exercise routine, this level will drop. We presently believe that it gets fixed during sleep. Certainly it is determined by the previous few days sugar levels. It is possible that after a month of going to bed a 5.0 mmol/L this level is well and truly fixed. that appears to be the case with me.

Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

Type 2 causes insulin resistance because high sugar causes high insulin and insulin upregulates delta5 desaturase more than delta6 desaturase and this increases the ratio of inflammatory Omega 6 fatty acids (Arachdonic acid iin particular) compared to anti-inflammatory Omega3 fatty acids (such as EPA and DHA) that your body manufactures. The medical community believes that this insulin resistance is the underlying cause of type 2. It is not because I have normal insulin resistance and am type 2 and because the cause is not merely a weakening of the elastic band, but is a dislodging of the base level glucose anchor. 

So insulin resistance is a result of type2 and it is involved in the cause of type 2, since it makes a positive feedback loop for higher sugar. The loop works like this. Higher sugar means more insulin. More insulin means more delta5 desaturase. More delta5 desaturase means more Arachidonic Acid. More Arachidonic acid means more inflammation. More inflammation means more insulin resistance. More insulin resistance means even more insulin etc. etc. etc.

Breaking this loop is not easy. It requires eating only the correct fats (Omega3 and dairy non processed non cheese sat fat) and it requires avoiding all forms of Omega6. But fixing insulin resistance does not cure type 2. 

Fixing the Gut Biome

The true cause of Type 2 is an overgrowth of a gut microbe which irritates your gut so as to push up your fasting sugar. that is it. Fixing your base sugar level, fixing your anchor, involves controlling that overgrowth.

The way to control it is to take prebiotic oligosaccharides to feed the good gut bacteria and avoid red meat and eat turkey whilst keeping low carb good fat etc.

The Diet

Here is the fix - discovered through a combination of inflammatory/anti inflammatory and general low carb diet theory and through bitter or sweet experience

1. Eat a maximum of 120 carb grams per day  Eat no food containing more than 15 grams of carb per 100 grams of food
2. Eat no low quality protein (which is turned into sugar by the liver by gluconeogenesis) - old or preserved or processed meat or cheese or cheap fast food protein
3. Avoid fat generally except for Omega3 polyunsaturated fat (from fish oil, flax seed and chia seed), butter fat and small amount of chicken fat (from the skin) and lamb fat (from the skin) and fish fat (from the skin).
4. Only cook and eat and use Rapeseed oil (which has a 2:1 ratio of Omega3 to Omega6 fat, and very little saturated fat). Use no other vegetable oil  Olive oil has too much monounsaturated fat and saturated. Rapeseed is the only oil with more Omega3 than Omega6 fat
5. Pork: The occasional roasted pork (well done to remove most of the fat is OK). The occasional bratwurst appears to be OK. Otherwise no pork, no sausages, no bacon, no ham, no pork chops, no pork pies.
6. Protein preference is Chicken, then lamb, then fish, then beef. Lamb and fish have the best fat balance but chicken has the least fat after cooking. Fish is not better than chicken or lamb.
7. No nuts. They all contain too much Omega6 polyunsaturated fat and too much Omega9 monounsaturated fat.
8. Do not snack at all. Only eat two meals per day.
9. Do sugar burning exercise after both meals.
10 Take 4 grams FOUR GRAMS of EPA and 4 grams FOUR GRAMS of DHA from TRIPLE strength molecularly distilled fish oil and 400 grams of magnesium, (to prevent muscle cramps) and 2500 - 5000 IU of D3 oil every day.
12. 125 mg of curcumin with bioperine extracted from 2,500 mg of Turmeric every day. A very good anti-inflammatory and anti microbial food.
13 Take 10,000 IU of vitamin A  OR 25,000 IU of beta carotene once per week (we no longer eat the internal organs of animals much).
11. Eat 1/4 of a fresh orange or 1/6 of a fresh grapefruit or a handful of strawberries/raspberries every day for vitamin C
12. Eat raw swiss chard, raw tomatoes and as much raw salad as you like. At least once per day.
13. Eat all vegetables except potatoes, sweet potatoes and parsnips.
14. Eat no breakfast cereal, no grains, no porridge oats, no muesli, no bread, pizza, rice, doughnuts, biscuit, cookies, scones, waffles, cakes. A small amount of pie pastry and a small amount of batter and a very small helping of pasta are OK. Low carb bread is generally no good, the carb is replaced with inflammatory fats from sunflower seeds etc.
15. Do eat chia porridge made from refrigerated white chia seed and water.
16. Do eat chia and flax seed bread (easy to bake). As a poor substitute for non bakers, Hovis lower carb bread is the best of a bad bunch
17. 1 or 2 glasses of wine per day or the equivalent helps to reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis and alcohol gives the body energy without going through sugar!
18. Avoid fatless protein such as crustaceans. It seems to get turned into sugar pronto.

The large dosages of EPA and DHA are critical for diabetics whose major health risk is a stroke or heart attack. Eskimos do not get diabetes, strokes or heart attacks (on their traditional seafood diet). They do get them on a western diet! Eskimos ingest around twice the amount of DHA and EPA that we are proposing. So the idea is to go half Eskimo in your fish oil consumption!

The Exercise: Good and bad

The idea here is the burn sugar without producing adrenalin which increases blood sugar in diabetics.

Low intensity exercise such as slow walking will burn more fat that carbs (after 20 mins)
High intensity exercise burns more carb than fat but in a diabetic produces too much adrenalin which actually puts your sugar up defeating the purpose of the exercise.
The optimal exercise intensity for type 2 is medium intensity at 50% of VO2 max - this is just at the point where you have to start breathing through your mouth.

So it is always a great idea to do 20 mins of low intensity exercise after any meal. Since this will burn mainly carbs and not burn too many calories. We do not know how long it takes to reset your metabolism before you can do another 20 mins of carb burning low intensity exercise. A diabetic does not in general want to burn calories because then he has to eat more to keep is muscle mass up. And then he has to exercise more to burn off the carb in that food. Muscles are where sugar is stored as glycogen.

Walking: Outside or better still upon a soft treadmill. Comfortable pace walking works well.

Spin Biking: On a recumbent or regular spin bike. Comfortable pace spin biking works well

With walking and with spin biking you start slowly and ramp the speed throughout the session as your body loosens up. The idea is to stretch yourself but not to strain yourself. So go at a comfortable pace. If you can sing Whitney Houston you are going to slowly. If you can just about sing Bob Dylan, you have it right.

Cross trainer: Do not use a cross trainer - too high intensity.

Swimming: More research is need (make sure the glucose monitor survives the swim!)

Rowing. This is where things become fascinating. Fast rowing is no good it puts up your sugar. Slow rowing is fantastic. It reduces your sugar without burning many calories. We do not fully understand why. It must be to do with the core muscles, your endurance muscles.

Pilates: This may be the best form of exercise for Type2 because it strengthens your core muscles, your endurance muscles which are used for breathing an posture. They are sued continuously, all day long. Having large biceps does not help with type 2 unless you spend all day long lifting things up and down. But having large core muscles does help because they are in use all the time and therefore burn sugar all day..

Exercise Research

We need to develop a routine of various core strengthening exercises which do not burn many calories but build core muscle strength and size. This is the most effective treatment for type2. We want to work with you and with Colletts to discover the best form of exercise for type 2 using continuous glucose monitors and trying everything the health club has to offer until we get the best routine. We have the best diet. We do not have the best exercise routine yet! Please help us find it!

The power of diet and exercise versus drugs in the treatment of type 2:

Here is the advertised effect of Metformin over the first 4 years of use.

The first thing this graph shows us is that Glipizide is a disaster. It is effectively beating a lame donkey. It squeezes a knackered pancreas for short term gain and long term loss. It robs Peter to pay Paul.

The second thing is that after 4 years on the best diabetic drug combination (Metofrmin + Forxiga) - you end up no better off that when you were diagnosed.

The 3rd thing it shows you is that medication can only reduce your HbA1c by around 1% at best and only in the first year.

However diet and exercise can reduce it by 6% in the first month and reduce it to completely normal indefinitely. My HbA1c was 11.4% upon diagnosis in December 2012. It has been between 5.0 and 5.3% since December 2013.

So diet and exercise are way more powerful than medication and their effect does not wear off as your body becomes more tolerant to the drug. No the effect improves as your body becomes more fit..

However Metformin assisted exercise does appear to be very effective too.

Metformin + Diet + Exercise + Alcohol

My father's friend Tammy Cameron set the original 2 glasses of wine driving limit. That was a good limit. He knew what he was talking about because he was an alcoholic - as was my Dad! So guys here is the deal. If you stick to a good low carb, anti inflammatory (low insulin resistance) diet the here is what you need to do every day to have perfect blood sugar and a totally normal HbA1c

85 minutes of post prandial sugar reducing exercise
OR 75 minutes of post prandial sugar reducing exercise and 2 glass of red wine
OR 45 minutes of post prandial sugar reducing exercise and 2 Metformin tablets
OR 35 minutes of post prandial sugar reducing exercise and 2 Metformin tablets and 2 glasses of red wine
OR 25 minutes of post prandial sugar reducing exercise and 2 Metformin tablets and 4 double whiskies (not recommended!)

Actually too much alcohol damages the liver and can actually cause type2 through that damage.

Crudely speaking:

1 Metformin = 20 mins of sugar reducing exercise = 4 glasses of red wine.

You can of course up the dose of Metformin, But then the body reacts and just becomes more tolerant to it and you end up back where you started.

The Golden Rule

Type 2 Progresses very quickly when HbA1c is above 6.5%
Type 2 does regresses very slowly when HbA1c is below 5.5%

The trouble with medication is that it cannot get your HbA1c low enough to stop the disease progressing. That is why Diet and Exercise is a MUST in the treatment of type 2.

Type 2 is a disease where Diet and Exercise is presently more effective than all known medication. So to advance the treatment of this condition we must improve our diet and exercise routines. 

Food Kcals Non Fibrous Carb Protein Fibre Fat Non Fibrous Carb/Protein
Spinach 23 1.4 2.9 2.2 0.4 (0.14 w3 0.03w6) 0.48
Waitrose bean sprouts 50 1.2 1.9 1.7 3.7 (mainly w6 - BAD) 0.63
Portobello Mushroom 22 2.3 3.1 1.0 0.3 0.75
Pak Choi (Tesco) 19 1.18 1.5 1.0 0.2 0.79
Asparagus 20 1.8 2.2 2.1 0.1 0.81
Rocket (USDA) 25 2.1 2.5 1.6 0.7 (0.17 w3 0.13 w6) 0.84
Swiss Chard 19 2.1 1.8 1.6 0.2 1.16
Lettuce 15 1.6 1.4 1.3 0.2 1.2
Brussels Sprouts 43 5.2 3.4 3.8 0.3 1.5
Broccoli 34 4.4 2.8 2.6 0.4 1.6
Cauliflower 25 3.0 1.9 2.0 0.3 1.6
Mangetout (snow peas) 42 4.9 2.8 2.6 0.2 1.75
Courgette 17 2.1 1.2 1.0 0.3 1.75
Peas 81 9.0 5.0 5.0 0.4 1.8
French beans 31 5.14 2.7 1.83 0.22 1.9
Cucumber 15 3.1 1.6 0.5 0.1 1.9
Spring Onions 32 4.4 1.8 2.6 0.2 2.4
Radishes 19 2.1 0.8 1.9 0.1 2.6
Green Cabbage 25 3.5 1.3 2.5 0.1 2.7
Celery 16 1.9 0.7 1.6 0.2 2.7
Tomatoes (cherry) 18 2.7 0.9 1.2 0.2 3.0
Aubergine 25 3.0 1.0 3.0 0.2 3.0
Red Cabbage 31 4.9 1.4 2.1 0.2 3.5
Turnips 28 4.2 0.9 1.8 0.1 4.7
Swede 38 6.7 1.1 2.3 0.2 6.1
Red Onions 40 7.3 1.1 1.7 0.1 6.6
Potatoes 77 14.8 2.0 2.2 0.1 7.4
Carrots 41 7.2 0.9 2.8 0.2 8.0
Leeks 61 12.2 1.5 1.8 0.3 8.1
White Onions 42 8.4 1.0 1.6 0.1 8.4
Sweet Potato 86 17 1.6 3.0 0.1 10.6



Here is a revised copy of their emailed letter first sent to the Editor of the British Medical Journal on Monday January 29, 2019


I write to disclose the causes of Type 2 diabetes and the permanent cure for them and to attempt to correct various misunderstandings which have plagued the clinical treatment of this condition in recent years and prevented mankind from getting to the true cause of the condition.

On March 25th, 1854 W Bird Herapath (MD London FRS Edinburgh) gave a paper read at the Quarterly meeting of the Bath and Bristol Branch of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association. His paper was published in the Association Medical Journal LXIX April 28, 1854 page 374  This Journal I understand to be the predecessor to the BMJ.

Bird, treated a severe case of Type2 diabetes with 2-3 tablespoons per day of the yeast termed at that time "Torula Cerevisiae". The names of yeasts have been changed several times since then but as far as I can ascertain the modern name for that yeast is Candida Robusta, which is a common food fungus  Mycobank has Torula Cerevisiae being referred to in 1840 in France as being Candida Robusta - )

Bird reasoned incorrectly that the yeast would convert excess glucose which he believed to be present in his patient's intestines into alcohol or lactic acid and thereby improve his condition. In those days blood sugar was estimated from the grains of sugar per imperial pint of urine! His patient went from 850 grains per pint to 300 grains per pint within 2 days of the treatment and was fully cured in 6 weeks. 

This case fascinated me because I had never seen a full cure of Diabetes Milletus before. Bird accepted in his article that he was presenting his singular result too early for concrete clinical conclusions to be drawn. This candour convinced me that his findings were genuine,

I have been type 2 diabetic for 7 years and was managing my sugar exceptionally well with a low carb high good fat (Omega3 and dairy fat) low bad fat (Omega6 and Omega9 and animal meat fat) high fresh protein low preserved protein diet and exercise routine. My HbA1c has been 5.0%-5.2% (30-34 mmol/mol) for the last 6 years. Furthermore my insulin resistance is normal (HOMA IR1 is 1.2%). So having fixed both my fasting sugar levels and my HbA1c and my insulin resistance, I should in theory have cured my diabetes. But I am still diabetic having to do around 80 minutes of carb burning exercise per day on a low carb diet to keep my sugar at normal levels. However for 5 years I would go to sleep with sugar around 4.5 mmol/L and wake up with sugar around 4.5 mmol/L

So I decided to try this cure myself. I ate 100 grams of Young's Active Dried Yeast (manufactured by Lesaffre) over 4 days. The result was that my diabetes became uncontrollably bad. It would shoot up after a meal and no amount of exercise would bring it back down again. I would burp and fart regularly and I smelt like a brewery. I postulated that since I had eaten a beer yeast perhaps wine would stop it. So I took 2 glasses of Chilean Merlot. That stopped the burping and farting and enabled exercise to bring my sugar back to normal. So for a week my condition improved and I was able to return my sugar to normal after my meal due to adding actually a bottle of red wine to the menu each day. But my sugar no longer remained static at night. It would rise and I would wake up initially at 6.0 and then 5.5 and then 5.2 mmo/l (during those 7 days).

The wonderful thing about my condition was that the burping and farting would physically tell me the level of activity of the yeast. And whenever they started I knew my sugar would rise. It became very obvious that this yeast was the cause of my much worse type2 and that it was setting my sugar base level not me. 

Then I investigated what it was precisely in the wine that was inhibiting the yeast. I thought perhaps it was the alcohol. But brandy had very little effect. A diabetic friend of mine (Brian Bain) who also took this yeast and had precisely the same results as myself, tried some French Fitou and his condition improved just as mine had done. So we knew that something in the wine has inhibiting the yeast but it was not the alcohol.

This led me to believe that it was the Sodium/Potassium Metabisulphite (E223/224) or Potassium Sorbate (E202) that is put in most wine to prevent re-fermentation and preserve the vintage. So my friend and I both made up a solution of wine preservative in the same ratio as one would use for wine (88mg/L of the Metabisulphite and 200mg/L of the Sorbate) and we drank a litre of it on January 25th. My results were stunning. My sugar went from 84 mg/dl to 59 mg/dl according to my brand new abbot freestyle continuous glucose monitoring sensor. These instruments underestimate sugar by around 20 mg/dl for the first 8 hours of use. So in truth the wine preservatives (E202 and E224) took my sugar from around 104 to 79 mg/dl.

This categorically proved that the yeast was setting my sugar levels. Of course the farting and burping stopped after having taken the Es. So I continued taking more of these Es which was a really really bad idea Because they stun the yeast and then it comes back after about 6 hours. And then my sugar was worse than before because the Young's dried active yeast is more resistant to the inhibitor that the other yeasts in my gut. However here again was absolute proof that the yeast was setting my sugar level. If I drank the inhibitor the sugar level would fall actually to the level that it would be at if I was not diabetic. Then after the inhibitor wore off, my sugar levels would climb back to diabetic levels.

After 4 days of this treatment I had done significant damage to my gut flora and I terminated the treatment and went back to the Merlot and the Fitou. Then I became more diabetic than I have ever been before by a long way. My sugar rose at night, and during the day even if I ate nothing all day. However the Merlot and the Fitou were having have less and less effect too (on January 27th I needed 2 bottles of Fitou and 140 minutes of spin biking to fix my post prandial sugar) which means that it must have been the combination of the Sulphites and the alcohol in those wines which inhibited the yeast. 

So then I terminated both taking the sulphites and the sorbate and wines containing them. 

I had been cavalier with my health. But in doing so I have found one of the causes of type 2. It is caused by at least one and probably more than one yeast. 

One type of diabetes results from having more bad yeast than good yeast in the gut essentially. As my body has just demonstrated.

So now we can see what perhaps happened with Bird's patient. The Torula Cerevisiae he took in such large quantities was replacing the pathogenic diabetes causing yeast that his patient was suffering from. 

Actually that may not be true. Both the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and the Itraconazole made my sugar unmanageable. It may just be that any 'attack' on the gut be it from a yeast or an anti fungal drug puts fasting sugar levels up. And I took a lot of yeast and a lot of Itraconzaole - so my fasting sugar levels went up a lot (although in my case I just did more and more exercise to bring my sugar back down). .  

But certainly we have now solved riddle of why certain wines are great for type 2 but alcohol per se is not. It is the combination of the alcohol and the sulphites and the sorbate that inhibits the diabetic yeast. We know this because it stops our burping and farting and our sugar returns to non diabetic levels. At least it did in my case until the yeast developed resistance to the inhibitors. 

At present we have found that wine in small doses works very well (one small or large glass is best). But large quantities of inhibitor do not.

Finally I went to see Prof Hay at the London Bridge Hospital and he prescribed Itraconazole. The minute I took the first capsule at noon on January 29th (not with a meal) my sugar shot down from around 126 mg/dl to 86 mg/dl within one hour.  This was precisely the same effect that I had already seen with both red wine and the inhibitor. But the itraconazole effect lasted for 15 hours. Then the sugar started climbing again and the farting and the burping recommenced. 

I was on 100 mg one per day which was insufficient. So I took 2 glasses of wine and then took the 2nd pill at 6 am the next day, January 30th, after my once daily meal. Again my sugar came down and my gut felt a whole lot better. 

But I was extremely scared given the rise after the 15 hours and and I knew the dosage was too low and I was not interested in any more self medication. So I went to the absolutely wonderful St Thomas's A&E. They saw me very rapidly and upped the dosage to 100mg twice per day for both myself and my friend Brian Bain who had also eaten the yeast. This essentially cured Brian. But I had more of the yeast and more of the inhibitor. So I went back to A&E and the dose was doubled once more to 200 mg twice per day. That fixed the yeast infection. But then my original diabetes got markedly worse and became equally unmanageable. This was fascinating. My diabetes became the most aggressive at max itraconazole concentration 4-8 hours after taking the tablets. So this was not the yeast which was under maximum suppression during that period. No it was the original diabetes which must be caused by something in the gut which benefits from having no competition from yeasts. That something is obviously a bacteria. It has a field day when the yeasts are inhibited. So my farting and burping now occurred at max itraconazole concentration. I remembered that I did used to fart more than burp actually when exercising and burning off my sugar with the old diabetes.

On the 9th day of treatment I reduced the dosage in the morning with the meal to one 100mg tablet and kept the 2x 100mg at night which were taken without a meal and were therefore only 60% effective. This made my sugar much more manageable at peak itraconazole level between 10:30 and 14:30 (4-8 hours after taking the capsules at 06:30). Brian was taking 100 mg with a meal twice a day. 

So this ghastly strain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae which the lab eventually identified as bog standard Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, has led us to the cause of the majority of type 2 diabetes cases. It is a bacterial infection of the gut which has the capability to set your fasting sugar level when active in sufficient quantity just as the yeast can do. Then of course there is a further type of diabetes caused by a yeast infection of the gut.

So really the solution is to identify the bacteria and find the antibiotic. This is all rather like the discovery of Helicobacter Pylori. In the meantime, SAFE probiotics might be a good idea. Bio Yoghurt and Suaerkraut perhaps - but who knows if the bad diabetic bacteria is one of the probiotics? Stay away from Kefir which contains yeast.

This detective story is nearing its conclusion. I write in order that other's can join the search. 

I am not a doctor. But my father, Horace David Ritchie, was the Professor of Surgery at the Royal London Hospital. He insisted that I did a year of cell biology at Cambridge. So I have some medical understanding. And as I found out, a little knowledge is a very dangerous thing.

Gordon Ritchie


Once you have fixed all of these you will be clinically non diabetic. You will pass any diabetic test. Any peripheral neuralgia will have improved to the point of almost vanishing. However you will have to continue to eat fairly low carb and you will have to do some amount of carb burning medium intensity exercise every night before bed for several years after the fix.

The writer was diagnosed Type 2 with fasting sugar of 18 mmol/L (324 mg/dl) in November2012 and HbA1c of 11.4%. He has done all 3 steps above. He now has normal fasting insulin resistance (HOMA IR1 is 1.2), normal HbA1c (4.8%) and normal fasting sugar 4.4 mmol/L (79 mg/dl). 

It was an extremely difficult piece of research to do to get to this point and the writer although clinically non diabetic is not fully cured, rather than having to do 3 hours of exercise and eat low carb, which was the case upon diagnosis in November 2012, as of April 2019, he now only has to do 50 minutes of exercise and eat low carbs. His peripheral neuralgia has essentially gone and he has no diabetic complications. 

Step 1: Fixing spot sugar.

1. Eat two meals per day and no snacking at all. No cups of tea or coffee except with meals.
2. Eat no type of food with more than 12 grams of carb per 100 grams of food.
3. No Vegetable oil at all except a small amount of organic rapeseed oil (the best vegetable oil for type 2). 
4. No Nuts at all.
5. No Dairy at all except butter.
6. No sugar at all.
7. 300-600 grams of flax seed and chia seed bread per day
8. 30 grams of ground WHITE chia seed (not black chia seed) with 250 grams of water mixed together into a porridge. Then drink 200 grams of water with it. Store the white chia seed in the fridge. Only purchase it from retailers who store it cold such as Tesco or Sainsbury. Do not purchase it from Amazon or Ocado. Chia seed is like fish (very high Omega 3). It should be kept in the fride (it is vegetable fish oin essentially).
9. Do not eat old or preserved meat (unless you thoroughly heat it up to kill all bacteria in it first).. The diabetic bacteria come from old meat (we suspect). Old or preserved meat puts sugar up a lot.
10. Turkey (least fat) > Lamb (best fat) > Fish > Veal > Chicken > Lean beef. Eat it roasted or grilled or fried so as to remove most of the fat. After roasting or grilling it can be stewed or curried. But get the fat out. first. 
11. Eat at most 2 chicken eggs per day. 9 quails eggs are way better (less arachidonic acid)
12. Eat 25-50 grams of spreadable butter which is mainly butter with a small amount of rapeseed oil (such as Lurpak spreadable) 
13. No high carb bread, no grains, no rice, no cereals, no breakfast cereals, no porridge oats, no cakes, no biscuits, no pizza, no pastries, no pasta, no noodles, no muffins, no doughnuts, no crackers, no scones, no bagels, no pretzels.
14. No fruits except a handful of raspberries, blackberries, strawberries or an eighth of a grapefruit
15. Exercise at 50% of VO2 max upon a treadmill or a spin bike or a recumbent bike or rowing machine after your last meal for between 45 and 150 minutes until your sugar is less than 5.0 mmol/L (90 mg/dl). Take as many 5 minute breaks during the exercise as you need. Fast walking or medium spinning or slow rowing are the best strategies to reduce sugar. You should be just below the point of having to breath through your mouth rather than your nose. Do not row quickly. Do not walk slowly
16. No processed meat (smoked, salted, cured or preserved) or aged meat. No pork pies, sausages, bacon, cured hams, luncheon meat,  etc. Preserved meat causes more gluconeogenesis - your body will just melt it down for sugar.
17. Non-fish seafood such as prawns, crab, lobster squid cause excessive gluconeogenesis too and should be limited or avoided.
18. Plenty of green and red vegetables (not avocado - too much mono fat - and not kale). 
19 Take all the following daily supplements and no others (for diabetes).

Per Day
4 grams EPA from molecularly distilled triple strength fish oil 
4 grams DHA from molecularly distilled triple strength fish oil 
5000 IU Vitamin D3
25,000 IU Natural Beta Carotene (once per week)
500 mg Vitamin Ester C (taken 8 hours after the Curcumin. Do not take them together. Vitamin C boosts Curcumin which suppresses gut fungi and therefore boosts gut bacteria which raises blood sugar in Diabetics. Separate the two by 8 hours and the effect will be minimal)
The curcumin from 2500 mg of Turmeric (with 10 mg of black pepper) per day.
500 mg Magnesium (we recommend Swanson premium triple magnesium complex - it stops all muscle cramps)

9 grams precisely  of Orafti ST Inulin, which is available from and manufactured by in Belgium (not insuljn but inulin which is a fructo-oligosaccharide)
one sachet of Bimuno (galacto-oligosaccharide) every day

The oligosaccharides feed the good bacteria which bring your fasting sugar level down. You will notice the difference after 4 days.

Become a Turkeytarian, at least 3 days per week!




There is some evidence that the bacteria Pseudomonas may cause type 2

"Usually, fresh cut meats in the refrigerator at high humidity undergo bacterial spoilage by: Gram negative aerobes like Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Moraxella spp.
The intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of ground beef favor these bacteria so strongly that they are almost exclusive spoilage agents." 

ENROFLOXACIN is known to cure diabetes in mice and that antibiotic (made by Bayer) is effective only against Pseudomonas Aerunginosa of the three meat pathogens above. Hence that is the most likely candidate for type 2. Enrofloxacin is 
ineffective against anaerobes. It is toxic to humans, but Ciprofloxacin is not.

CIPROFLAXACIN (deethlyated Enrofloxacin) is effective against Pseudomonas foot ulcers in Humans. 

Pseudomonas is the exclusive cause of deafness in Diabetes
Psuedomonas has the ability to stop wounds healing. Diabetics suffer from very slow wound healing.

We no longer think that Pseudomonas is the cause. Because Gordon has completely erradicated type 2 from his body by taking antifungal herbs and spices. 


Your sugar is not rising because you cannot store the sugar due to insufficient muscular storage space or high insulin resistance. No, your body is choosing to set your fasting sugar at the high level. It makes this choice due to inflammation in the gut or toxins in your blood caused by overgrowth of the type 2 causing gut microbes.

So here is the chain of events in type 2

1. Eat 100 grams of Carbs
2. This does not put your sugar up. It feeds the diabetes causing gut microbes. These then overgrow more and cause more inflammation of the gut or release more toxins. This puts your fasting sugar up.
3. The gut microbes do not only eat the sugar which you ingest. They also eat the sugar in the body fluid of the gut which is more or less equal to your blood sugar. So the more they overgrow in the gut, the more they irritate the gut, the more the gut becomes inflamed or the more toxins are released and the higher your blood sugar goes and the more sugar they can then eat and the more overgrowth they can then cause and the more inflammation/toxins will then result and the higher your sugar will go and there is the positive feedback which is type 2.

The concrete confirmation of this process for Brian and Gordon is that we have seen it on our continuous glucose monitors and heard the associated burping from the yeast every day during the first 6 months of our yeast infections. Our fasting sugar level is set by the activity of the yeast, not by the amount of carbs we eat directly.

Gordon has now completely cured his original type2 diabetes (the yeast may have helped in this regard by hogging all the sugar for the last 6 months and starving the pseudomonas). So if Gordon takes a small amount of antifungal medication (the Curcumin from 2500 mg of Turmeric with 10mg of bioperine from black pepper 3x per day - from Oxford Vitality) then his sugar readings are mildly diabetic as below...

54 mg/dL = 3.0 mmol/L  72 mg/dL = 4.0 mmol/L  90 mg/dL = 5.0 mmol/L  108 mg/dL = 6.0 mmol/L  126 mg/dL = 7.0 mmol/L


 Whereas if he takes 50% more antifungal medication (the Curcumin from 3750 mg of Turmeric 3x per day with 15mg of bioperine from black pepper) then his sugar readings are non diabetic as below...

 Whereas if he takes double that does of antifungal medication (the Curcumin from 5000 mg of Turmeric 3x per day with 20mg of bioperine from black pepper) then his sugar readings are non diabetic as below...

The same meal was eaten every day (450 grams of Turkey and 800 grams of Chia and Flax bread butter and 10 quails eggs and 400 grams of spinach and 100 grams of sprouts and 110 grams of cherry tomatoes). Turkey is a very dry meat and has the least amount of diabetic meat eating microbes in it.

Gordon had to cut out his one hour bedtime walk on Friday night August 23, 2019. But still he woke up with sugar at 54 mg/dL which is 3.0 mmol/L. He always does 45 minutes of spin biking before bed. That will now have to be reduced.

So there it is. The level of antifungal medication determines the severity of the diabetes. From mild down to none.