Permanent Type 2 Diabetes Cure is Becoming Reality...

1. It Can Be Put into 'Regression' within a week, by medium intensity post prandial aerobic exercise and a very low carb diet with no snacking

2. Spot/Random/Fasting/Post Prandial blood sugar and HbA1c can be non diabetic within 2 months, with medium intensity aerobic exercise and a very low carb diet high Omega3 fat low Omega6 fat diet.

3. Then you must fix your fasting insulin resistance. This is done with the natural Delta 5 desaturase blockers: Vitamin A, Beta carotene, Curcumin. By ingesting Eskimo levels of marine EPA and DHA and restricting Omega6 consumption to be absolutely less than 8 grams per day. This is NOT a Low Carb High Fat diet. It is a Low Carb High Omega3 fat (ALA EPA and DHA) low Omega6 fat diet. It is in effect a Low Carb Anti Inflammatory Diet or LCAID is the best description. Low carb for blood sugar and anti inflammatory for insulin resistance.

The writer has done all 3 steps above. He now had normal fasting insulin resistance, normal HbA1c and normal fasting sugar. 

The catch22 in this process is that to keep your sugar down you must eat less carbs and do more exercise. .But to keep your muscle mass up on a low carb high exercise regime you will have to eat more fat to get sufficient calories. But fat generally puts insulin resistance up. And insulin resistance is the underlying cause of Type2. However not all fats are created equal. In general terms... 

Excess Sat fats increase insulin resistance a lot but can be defrayed by balancing them with mono fats
Mono Omega9 fats push insulin resistance up a little and can be defrayed by mono Omega7 fats. 
Omega6 poly causes inflammation to a type 2 diabetic with high insulin levels. This is what causes insulin resistance. Omega3 fats can defray this effect. 

And that is the fix. We do not go low carb high fat. We go low carb low Omega6 high Omega3 fat. More particularly we take anti inflammatory supplements which block delta 5 desaturase and fix the imbalance in our Omega6 metabolism caused by excess insulin which linearly up-regulates our delta 5 desaturase levels and therefore pushes our Omega6 metabolism to be inflammatory.

Type2 Diabetics Have a Busted Omega6 Metabolism

The solution is to be very specific about what fats you eat and what fats you do not eat. Do not just eat less carb and more fat. That will definitely put your insulin resistance up. It did with me for 3 years notwithstanding the perfect non diabetic sugar numbers I had due to all the exercise and the low carb diet. The good fats for a diabetic are fish based Omega3 anti-inflammatory fatty acids and plant based Omega3 (alpha linolenic acid) from flax seed and white NOT BLACK chia seed and that is it. The bad fats are excess sat fat (particularly palmitic acid) and Omega9 mono fat (which is a lot less harmful) and Omega6 poly fats which are not a problem in moderation for normal people but are a disaster for type2 diabetics whose increased insulin up-regulates their desaturase enzymes to the point where their Omega6 metabolism ceases to be balanced and becomes inflammatory which causes insulin resistance. Industrial Trans fat is of course also a total disaster for everybody, whereas ruminant trans fat such as in meat and dairy is perhaps only slightly worse than sat fat. 

Our newest and most incisive understanding of Type 2 is that it is caused by an inflammatory biasing of Omega6 metabolism away from DGLA (Dihomo Gamma Linolenic Acid) which is anti inflammatory and towards AA (Arachidonic Acid) which is pro inflammatory, due to increased delta5 desaturase levels caused by higher insulin levels AND due to some other factors that are yet to be identified.. 

Carbs are the blood sugar poison
Omega6 is the Insulin Resistance Poison

It does not seem to matter what type of Omega6 you eat. It all manages to end up as Arachidonic Acid which is the most inflammatory fat there is. 

If high insulin resistance persists for months then capillary plaque may also start to form. But the writer has had type for around 10 years (6 of which were undiagnosed) and even now his non fasting insulin resistance appears to be more related to inflammation than plaque (cholesterol is fine). Inflammation has a larger effect upon capillaries than it does upon larger vessels. If you thicken up the wall of the small capillary it will seriously restrict its already small diameter. Whereas if you thicken up the wall of a larger vessel the internal diameter of that vessel will not change so drastically. The inflammatory part of that response is multiplied by the western diet which is far too rich in pro inflammatory Omega6 fats and far to poor in anti inflammatory Omega3 fats (typically around 20:1 when it should be 1:1 for a normal person and 1:2 for a type 2 diabetic and 1:4 up as far as 1:7 for an eskimo).

The modern day American has a blood Omega6:Omega3 ratio of around 10:1. The traditional Eskimo has 1:7 the other way around. Eskimos on their traditional diet get neither type 2 diabetes nor coronary heart disease.

Technically: Omega6 is mainly present in food as linoleic acid (18:2ω6) which is converted by the body to AA (Arachidonic Acid, 20:4ω6). Whereas Omega3 is mainly present as alpha linolenic acid (18:3ω3) which is converted by the body to EPA (20:5ω3). The ratio of AA to EPA in your blood determines your inflammatory response. This is easy to fix. Mine as of 2016November is 0.78, which is around the level of a traditional Japanese fish diet consumer. The healthy male body only converts around 8% of the ALA available to EPA. The healthy female body converts around 20%. The same figures apply to conversion of LA to DGLA and to AA in the Omega6 pathway. So in theory one gram of EPA will defray 12 grams of Omega linoleic acid from food in men and 5 grams in women. I have not found that to be true in practice. This is because I am type 2 diabetic and therefore have higher insulin levels and therefore have higher desaturase levels and the desaturases are the rate limiting enzymes in both the OMega3 and the Omega6 pathways. I would say I gram of EPA protects against perhaps 5 grams of LA for a type 2 male diabetic like me. For a female it will be worse since they have more desaturases in the first place. 

So by taking 5 grams of EPA per day (and 5 grams of DHA to balance it), one is actually only protected against around 10 grams of Linoleic Acid (LA) if male (in my experience). It will be worse if female (since women have higher desaturase levels). So that is how dangerous Omega6 fat is to a type 2 diabetic.  Hence having fish on Friday and cod liver oil every day is not such a bad idea. Because type2 diabetics have higher insulin levels and so have higher levels of the enzymes which catalyse the synthesis of EPA and AA, males may convert 16%/24% or more of LA to AA and type2 diabetic women up to 50%. It all depends upon how high your insulin is, and that depends on how bad your insulin resistance is and that is the true measure of how diabetic you are. 

So we need to go Eskimo, since they eat 4x-7x as much Omega3 as they do Omega6 on their traditional seafood diet. Eskimos on their traditional diet get neither Coronary Heart Disease nor type 2. Whereas westerners eat more than 20x more Omega6 than Omega3 on their traditional fast food diet.  But taking one or two or three regular strength or even triple strength Omega3 pills per day will absolutely not fix type 2. Eskimos eat around 15 grams total of EPA and DHA per day with little or no Omega6. And on that diet no Eskimo ever became diabetic because it is entirely anti inflammatory. If you have type 2, then your muscle cell membranes will be made up of the wrong fats and so are your blood cell membranes. 

For a fairly full explanation of the cause of Insulin Resistance please see our insulin resistance page.

For the full breakdown of the inflammatory or anti inflammatory effect of 16,417 foods taken from the US, the UK, the Australian and the Norwegian national databases please see our Diabetic Index Table.

Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and high blood sugar are caused by a failure of your body to store post prandial sugar as glycogen in your liver and in your muscles - due to insulin resistance cause by inflammation and by excessive glucagon mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis - that is to say an excessive overproduction in the liver of sugar from excess protein that you have eaten. The liver will stop overproducing if you get the diet and exercise routine right (mine no longer does).

In lay man's terms, either your sugar warehouse is too small due to muscular degeneration from a sedentary high carb lifestyle, or your muscle cell insulin receptors are gummed up with Omega6, which is preventing insulin from doing its job in your muscle cells or your fork lift truck is driver inside your muscle cell is unable to do much work because the whole warehouse if full of toxic waste products (reactive oxygen species) resulting from metabolic overload or the roads supplying your sugar warehouse are blocked due to vascular sclerosis. You have a logistical problem with sugar. But glucose intolerance is not the cause of Type2. It is a symptom of the disease.

With Type2 your body gets caught in a feedback loop. Higher sugar leads to all of the above causes getting worse which leads to even higher sugar. Then after a few months of this disaster, secondary complications begin. These include retinal blindness, kidney failure, neuralgia (pins and needles in your nerves due to poor blood supply to them), poor peripheral circulation (in the feet and hands) - which if left untreated can lead to amputation, lower skin resistance to infection and slow skin healing from cuts and bruises, skin bacterial infections such as erythrasma, and skin fungal infections such are ringworm and thrush. Then as the vascular sclerosis progresses from the smaller vessels in your skin to the larger vessels in your body, you can get heart attacks and strokes which can kill you. Incidentally type 2 causes impotence in the majority of men since potence requires good blood circulation and sensitive nerves in that area.

That is the bad news.
Now here is the good news.

You can absolutely stop Type2 progressing by going on a carb negative diet and exercise regime. This is conceptually quite simple to grasp but requires effort to implement in your life. 

The way to lose weight is to burn more calories with exercise then you eat in a day.
The way to lower blood sugar is to burn more carb grams that you eat and can store in a day.

A non diabetic person who eats 100 grams of carbohydrate will store the resulting glucose as glycogen in his muscles and in his liver within 2 the hours following his meal and then use that stored energy keep his muscles and body going until the next meal. A Type2 diabetic cannot do that. So what we have to do is burn the glucose that we cannot store with post prandial exercise (exercise after the meal). So instead of storing it, we burn it. It is that simple. And we should burn it at the same time that a non diabetic person would be storing it - i.e. as soon as possible after the meal. I have a treadmill. And after each meal I jump on that and watch something on youtube or an iplayer or Amazon prime or whatever.

If you eat a low carb meal and exercise straight after it then you fix your sugar and diabetes will stop progressing and start regressing. 

Diabetes progresses when HbA1c is above 6% and regresses when HbA1c is below 5.5%. Diabetes goes into regression (desugarization) the minute you take your blood sugar below 6.0 mmol/L or 108 mg/dl and it goes into progression (resugarization) the minute you sugar rises to 7.0 mmol/L or 126 mg/dl. Type 2 diabetes cure and reversal can be achieved through Ketosis resulting from a carb negative diet and exercise regime. Any sufficiently carb negative diet and exercise regime will significantly outperform all the following drugs: Metformin, Victoza, Januvia, Glipizide, Lantus, Janumet, Glimepiride, Humalog, Actos, Invokana, Diamicron, Amaryl, Pioglitazone, Onglyza, Gliclazide, Lucentis, Byetta, Galvus, Acarbose, Forxiga, NovoRapid, Exenatide, Apidra, Liraglutide, Repaglinide, Actrapid, Eucreas, Glucobay, Saxagliptin, Vildagliptin, Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin, Prandin. These drugs can get your HbA1c down to 6.5% at best (which is well managed but still diabetic). A Carb negative diet and exercise regime can get it down to 5% which is non diabetic. With an HbA1c of 5% your diabetes is in full regression. With an HbA1c of 6.5% it is in slow progression. 

I have been doing this for 4 years now (as on November 2016) and so have many readers of this site. We have all reversed diabetes in the sense that is no longer progressing and we will not get any further complications. In my case my peripheral neuralgia in my feet has all but gone. I can walk around barefoot with no problem, which is impossible for people with neuralgia. My HbA1c is totally normal at 5.1% which is 32 mmol/mol. My blood sugar is totally normal around 5.0 mmol/L which is 90 mg/dl.

BUT..... I am still diabetic because I still have insulin resistance. If I was to eat a big bowl of rice or a large chocolate cake and do no exercise afterward I would get into trouble not immediately but a few unexercised meals later. 

So up until March 2016, this site had shown the reader how to fix blood sugar numbers which is really really important because it stops type 2 progressing and puts many diabetic complications into regression and stops the feedback loop of type2 which arguably puts type2 into regression. But it had no useful information (before March 2016) on how to reduce your insulin resistance which is the root cause of the failure to store blood sugar properly. 

If you can fix your insulin resistance then you are fully cured in the sense that you can once again store post prandial sugar properly and eat a chocolate cake or a bowl of rice without your sugar numbers going mad.  I can pass an OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) which is equivalent to eating a bowl of rice or a chocolate cake. My body can now handle that once. But if I do no further exercise then after the next unexercised meal I will be in trouble.

So to get back to the days of chocolate fudge cake, roast potatoes, rice and pasta, without having to exercise after every meal, one needs to fix ones insulin resistance as well as ones sugar numbers. It is not medically known how to do this (mind you neither is it medically known how to fix your sugar numbers with a carb negative diet and exercise regime - such is the pitiful state of medical research into type2). If you can fix your insulin resistance then you can fully cure your type2. I am making progress towards that goal now that I fully understand that fixing my sugar numbers alone will not get me there. My trouble has been that a non specific low carb high fat diet whilst being good for sugar numbers is bad for insulin resistance. When I first got my treadmill in mid 2013, I had to walk 180 minutes per day for imperfect but OK sugar (I was severely diabetic). Then by 2015, I only had to walk for 105 minutes per day for perfect sugar. But in January 2016, I was walking for 140 minutes per day and realised that something was going wrong. I then started treating my insulin resistance as well as my blood sugar and within 4 weeks I only had to walk for 105 minutes per day once more. Now, as of November 2016, I only have to walk for around 70 minutes per day. So I am very nearly there. The immoveable boulder has now been rolled back almost to the beginning - see Insulin Resistance.

How to Permanently Cure Type 2 Diabetes, Fix it and Reverse it

Most Orthodox Medicine practitioners both in the UK and in the US will tell you that Diabetes is a chronic progressive disease that has no cure. What is meant by that statement is that if you are not prepared to change your eating habits or your exercise habits then you will remain diabetic for the rest of your life and even if you are prepared to change them you may alleviate the symptoms to some extent but you will still be diabetic. Incidentally your life expectancy will also be decreased by 10 years (recent data from UK insurance companies). The Mayo Clinic in the US (their pre-eminent medical facility) says the following at

"Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's main source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin - a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells - or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. Untreated, type 2 diabetes can be life-threatening.

There's no cure for diabetes, but you can manage - or even prevent - the condition. Start by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to control your diabetes, you may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy to manage your blood sugar."

The out of date medical position is that you can control it for 5-15 years by diet and exercise and medications such as Metformin which decreases your liver glucose overproduction and supposedly decreases your muscle cell insulin resistance and Sulphonylureas which increase your pancreatic insulin production. Then another 5-15 years with insulin. Then you will probably die of a diabetic complication. This prognosis although largely true for the last 20 years, is now out of date, false and misleading for the following reasons...

1. There are people who have successfully controlled diabetes for 20 years with diet and exercise and periodic Metformin alone. 
2. There are plenty of people who were on various medications for Type 2, but after reducing their carbohydrate intake and working out in the gym for few months, normalized their blood sugar and so were able to come off those medications.
3. There are people who have put Diabetes into regression to the point where they are clinically no longer diabetic, i.e. their blood sugar is normal and they can pass any clinical diabetic test with a non diabetic result (I am one of these)
4. There are people who have put Diabetes into regression to the point where they are clinically non diabetic and remain so doing less than one hour of exercise per day on a 100 carb gram per day diet (Sami is one of these).
5. There are plenty of people on diabetic forums who have managed to come off their meds and have reduced their HbA1c to the point where they are clinically non diabetic by going on an ultra low carb (50 carb grams per day max) diet and in addition by either losing a significant amount of their excess weight or by adding in some carb burning exercise to their regime.
6. We have testimonials from several people who following the advice on this site, have put Type 2 into regression and become clinically non diabetic.
7. A whole slew of Diabetic experts (Dr Feinman, Dr Bernstein, Dr Westman and 20 other doctors!) now (as of January 1, 2015) recommend dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management. See also . These doctors are desperate for diabetics to understand the massive advantages of a very low carb and high fat diet.

It is absolutely true to say that modern medical science has no drug therapy or surgical procedure that cures Type 2 diabetes except in the case where the disease is mild and caused by the patient being obese. Obese patients who are mildly diabetic can be cured with gastric bypass surgery. Likewise an extremely low calorie diet can cure them - but only temporarily - because you cannot eat an extremely low calorie diet for longer than 8 weeks  - see Better still a low carb diet can cure them (its the carbs that are the problem not the calories). Low calorie diets work on fat people who are only mildly diabetic because a fat person is eating for two essentially just as a pregnant woman is. We know that gestational diabetes is often cured when the baby is delivered. This is because the mother no longer has to eat for two - although lactating puts some extra pressure upon her metabolism. Likewise if a fat person loses his fat then he is back to eating for one normal sized person. 

So the Mayo Clinic is correct for non obese people as regards a surgical or a drug therapy cure. But they are totally incorrect as regards a diet and exercise cure which regrettably is not recommended by very many people in the medical community with the notable exceptions of the 23 doctors involved in the carbohydrate restriction paper and of Dr Mercola. His type 2 diabetes page is a must read...

If you have type 2 and your pancreas has not yet burnt out then there is a combination of diet and exercise and if necessary medication which will stop diabetes progressing, and which will put it into regression rather than progression (by which I mean it will get better and better slowly each day) and which will reverse any neuralgia and will return all of your clinical symptoms to normal, providing you keep up the diet and the exercise. If you do this for long enough then you can get to the point where you remain clinically non diabetic on no medication, on less than one hour per day of exercise, with a 100 carb gram per day diet. The length of time you need to keep diabetes in regression for before you are permanently 'cured' depends upon the length of time that it spent in progression before diagnosis and effective treatment (and possibly the average HbA1c during the period of diabetic progression). 

All you have to do is return your muscles back to the condition that they were in before you became diabetic, get your brain off its subconscious sugar addiction (so that it stops telling your liver to overproduce glucose), reduce your carb intake to around 50 carb grams per day and then burn those carb grams off with exercise, and reduce your insulin resistance significantly by desugarizing your body and keeping it that way and by building up some muscles, and by fixing any essential vitamin or mineral deficiencies. 

Drugs can reduce your HbA1c (Glycosylated Haemoglobin level - 1-2 month blood sugar average) by around 1% in the medium term (according to their clinical trial results). But that is not enough to put diabetes into regression. All the drugs will do is slow down the rate of progression of the disease. To put the disease into regression you need to get your HbA1c down to 5.5%. Generally Diabetics have an HbA1c of anything from 7% to 12%. So you need to reduce your HbA1c not by 1% but by at least 1.5% and normally by 2%-5%. No drug combination can yet do that without lifestyle change as well. So drugs will buy you a bit of time. But they will not cure you unless you are prepared to help them and cure yourself with some lifestyle improvement. 

The only way to achieve a type 2 diabetes cure, a full reversal, generally, is by going on a carb negative diet and exercise regime. You must burn off more carbohydrate than you eat - with carb burning exercise. So the cure is to go on a very low carb diet (we recommend 40-50 carb grams per day maximum) - see and see and to go on a brisk walk after every meal (preferably upon a treadmill) to burn off the carbs you have just eaten and the new glucose that your liver has made from the protein you have just eaten by hepatic gluconeogenesis. 

The fastest way to fix your sugar is to stay on the drugs initially and change your lifestyle by going Carb Zero or Carb Negative. Then, once your fasting sugar and your HbA1c is fixed, you can start reducing the drugs down to zero in consultation with your doctor. If you stay on any drugs for too long without getting your sugar low enough to put diabetes into regression, they will start to be less and less effective and you have to take more and more of them until your become insulin dependent as your pancreatic beta cells progressively fail. Please do not let that happen. Change your lifestyle. You will feel better, you will be better and you will live much longer. 

Here is the golden rule...

Diabetes Progresses when your spot sugar is above 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl), (HbA1c above 6%)
Diabetes Regresses when your spot sugar is below 6.0 mmol/L (108 mg/dl), (HbA1c below 5.4%)

And here is the philosophy for a diabetic...

Carbs are poison. Exercise is the antidote! 
Excessive sat fat, mono fat and the wrong Omega3:Omega6 poly ratio are the poisons. Excessive  Omega3 poly is the antidote! 

Take the antidote every time you take the poison, and take it as soon as you can after poisoning yourself. Excess Carbohydrate over and above what the brain needs to keep functioning (which is around 75 carb grams per day)  is 100% poison. Some fats are poisonous and others are not. Protein is around 50% poisonous due to hepatic gluconeogenesis (the liver will turn around half of it into carbs on a very low carb diet). Type1 diabetics are advised to treat protein like half the amount of carb when calculating how much insulin is required. Do not worry about eating a high fat low carb eskimo diet. Excess carbs cause weight gain and cardio vascular trouble not excess fat - however counter intuitive that may seem or feel. Low fat foods have resulted in an epidemic of fatness. What we need is low carb foods! 

This is all is easy to say (although it was not so easy to deduce) - but extremely difficult to do (until you know how). However the writer has done it and he was badly diabetic and not obese at diagnosis on 2012November26 (spot sugar was 23.0 mmol/L 414 mg/dl and HbA1c was 11.4% with a BMI of 26.7). Also a friend of his has now done it completely in just one month following our latest techniques. He was diagnosed on 2014June10 with spot blood sugar of 13.9 mmol/l (250 mg/dl) and HbA1c of 10.6%, and had been extra thirsty for 2 months prior to that - so we assume he had been fully diabetic for 2 months. And  many readers of this site have done it and written in with their results - see testimonials.

We must make one thing clear. It does not matter how your reduce your HbA1c down to 5.4%. You can take every drug in the book and eat no carbs and sit on your butt all day long. You can eat a half a chocolate cake every day, take no drugs at all, and go jogging for 2 hours after the cake. You can combine any mixture of drugs exercise and diet you like. 

But you MUST get your 2 hour post prandial sugar down to 6.0 mmol/L, 108 mg/dl (without post prandial exercise)
Then you MUST get your fasting sugar down to 5.2 mmol/L, 94 mg/dl every morning
Then you MUST get your HbA1c down to 5.4% and keep it there. 

Do not become a spectator at you own personal sugargeddon. Take some action!

The writer is not against diabetic drugs. He is just pointing out that they will not, by themselves, stop diabetes killing you. They will not, by themselves, stop you developing painful and debilitating diabetic complications. Do whatever combination of drugs and exercise and low carb dieting works for you. Drug assisted diet and exercise is fine (although certain drugs carry the risk of hypos with high intensity exercise). However for those of you who, like the writer, are wary of the profit driven offerings from the modern pharmaceutical industry, the good news is that diet and exercise are more powerful and more effective than drugs in the case of type 2 diabetes and further, that a sufficiently carb negative diet and exercise regime will in our experience immediately put diabetes into regression without the need for any drugs at all.

The writer cannot over emphasize that it is not in general the case that merely by losing weight you can reverse type 2. A Low Carb Ketogenic diet is for a fact more beneficial than a Low Calorie Diet even if you were obese upon diagnosis - see and see . If you were clinically obese and only slightly diabetic at diagnosis, then losing weight should do it. But type 2 is caused by your body having insulin resistance and insufficient glycogen storage capacity in its skeletal muscles for your typical carbohydrate consumption and some kind of endocrine system fault/cerebral sugar addiction which causes the liver to make too much sugar or not store enough of it as glycogen. It is not caused by being fat. Being fat just increases your metabolic load and so requires your body to have a larger glycogen battery. 

If you diet below a BMI of 24 for a man or below a BMI of 22.5 for a woman then you are just eating up your own muscles. But these are critical in storing sugar as glycogen and preventing diabetes from progressing. Sami, a friend of the writer, was fixed in 30 days with no weight loss whatsoever. The writer himself made the mistake of following the Newcastle Reversal concept that if you lose 15% of you body weight you cease to be diabetic. He lost more than that and destroyed his muscles and locked myself in a weak and sick and diabetic state for months. It was a DISASTER. The Newcastle Reversal Technique (low calorie weight loss diet alone) only works on really obese people who were mildly diabetic on diagnosis. Prof Taylor chose people with an average BMI on 33.6 and a fasting sugar of 9.2 mmol/L (166 mg/dl). My BMI was 26.7 on diagnosis and my fasting sugar was 18.0 mmol/L (324 mg/dl) and I dieted down to a BMI of 21.0. I mistakenly thought that there was a weight at which I would become non diabetic. Nothing could be further from the truth. Weight loss only helps if you were very overweight upon diagnosis.  

Around 100 grams or 1/6th of your glycogen is stored in the liver and around 500 grams or 5/6th of it is stored in your muscle cells - see So eliminating all the fat around your liver by losing weight is unlikely to fix the problem as Prof Taylor of Newcastle University suggests. I tried it. I went from 176 lbs to 138 lbs in 14 weeks. This improved my diabetes to the point where I could almost pass a 50% OGTT. But it did not fully reverse my diabetes. In fact it damaged me and increased my neuralgia, by eating away some of my muscle tissue. Also diabetic who have liver transplants from non diabetic donors remain just as diabetic with their new liver. So the liver is not the cause of diabetes. In general to fix type 2 you need to fix not only your diet and your weight but also your muscles and your insulin resistance and your cerebral sugar addiction. In my case I had to reverse 30 years of muscular degeneration caused by a high carb sedentary lifestyle! That does not happen overnight and there is no pill which gives you fitness. Neither can it be achieved by diet alone. As of August 2014 my BMI is now 23.5, which is still a little low given the amount of muscle I have put on from brisk treadmill walking and pull ups. 

For mankind's latest understanding of "The Role of Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Breakdown for Regulation of Insulin Sensitivity by Exercise" published in Frontiers in Physiology in December 2011 - see

Here is what happened in Sami's and Joe's and Vikas' and my cases...

Sami's Type 2 Diabetic Cure

Prior to diagnosis. 2/3 bottles of lucozade per day, 3 cans of coca cola per day, 4/5 pieces of coffee shop cake, and a snickers bar every day!!

Diagnosis Day1 (2014June10): Spot sugar 13.9 mmol/l, HbA1c 10.6% (92 mmol/mol). He had been fully diabetic for 2 months, normal weight, sedentary high stress fast food high carb lifestyle (London minicab company owner and driver 32 years old). His doctor told him he must go on Metformin immediately. He declined. Height 5ft 8 inches, 70 Kg. BMI 23.

Day2: He called me and I said walk for 20 minutes after every meal and stop eating sugar and carbs.

Day5 (2014June15): He came to see me after having partially followed my  instructions - his spot sugar was now 10.3 mmol/l (185 mg/dl). I told him to get on the treadmill. He walked for 30 minutes at 5.6 kph. Then his sugar was 7.1 mmol/l (128mg/dl). This astonished me because if I walk for 30 mins at 5.6 kph my sugar will go down by 1.5 mmol/l not 3.2. So then I said to hell with it, let's finish this, and he walked another 30 minutes at 5.6 kph for the first half and at 5.8 kph for the second half. This took his sugar down to 4.9 mmol/l (88 mg/dl). That astonished both of us. We had got his sugar to normal in one day. I then told him he must walk for 30 minutes after every meal on the treadmill at his local gym and he must eat a very low carb diet, nothing with more than 10% carbs in it.

Day11: He followed some of my instructions and walked for 30 minutes after every meal on the pavement not on the treadmill. He was still eating porridge for breakfast. His sugar was normally around 6.2 when he got up and around 6.2 after each walk. I told him he must walk upon the treadmill not upon the pavement.

Day18: Having walked upon the treadmill as instructed although still eating some porridge and drinking fully caffeinated coffee and having the odd wholemeal bread starbucks sandwich his sugar was now around 5.5 mmol/l (99 mg/dl) in the morning and after every walk. So now his diabetic symptoms have gone and he is clinically non diabetic as of June29. We will carry on with this program for another week and see what happens next. 

Day 30 (2014July15): Walking 30 minutes on the treadmill each day and a further 20 mins after dinner outside, for a total of 50 minutes per day, and eating a 100 carb gram per day diet (still eating porridge for breakfast - bad idea!) he now has a morning sugar of 5.2-5.5 mmol/L (94-99). So that is it. He is clinically cured and can maintain the cure on less than an hour's exercise per day with a 100 carb gram per day diet. He got there in 30 days.

Day 36 (2014July21): Starting a new regime for 4 weeks of walking 45 minutes on the treadmill once per day. Breakfast is porridge + milk in morning with a quarter of a grapefruit, and vegetable juice. Lunch Salmon or Sardines or Cod or Sea Bass + Salad, Green Tea or Mint Tea. Dinner: Peanut butter on low carb bread and salad and soup, or lamb chops and salad (kidney beans, cheese, cucumber, avocado, lettuce, cabbage, tomato, olive oil, vinegar), glass of semi skimmed milk. This is a weight maintaining diet.

Day 40 (2014July25): Regime is going fine. His morning sugar is still between 5.2 and 5.5 mmol/L (94-99 mg/dl) walking once for 45 minutes each day on the treadmill and taking a 100 carb gram per day diet.

Day 122 (2014October16). Sami had trouble with his feet ( I think the treadmill at his health club did not have good enough suspension). So his diet was OK but he has been unable for the last month to do much walking. Anyway his HbA1c results came in today and he was 40 mmol/mol or 5.8%. That is non diabetic. He is clinically cured. 5.8% is at the high end of the non diabetic range. 5.5% or below is the target in the writer's opinion. But anything at or below 6.0% is a clinical cure. So he is cured. He managed this by restricting carbs to 100 grams per day and by walking for 45 minutes per day on a treadmill for 3 months and could not manage any walking in the 4th month. He stopped exercising in the last 30 days due to pain in his feet. So there you are, a second type2 cure in 4 months with a limited amount of carb burning exercise and a low carb but not an ultra low carb diet. So it can be done relatively effortlessly if you catch type2 early enough. 

His doctor (having recommended drugs and even insulin) was amazed and asked him how he did it. He said low carb diet and exercise.

Joe's Type 2 Diabetic Cure

Joe had a fasting sugar of 9.0 in January 2014 and an HbA1c of 7.4%. He was mildly diabetic on diagnosis. He weighed 82 kg at the time. He made a decision to adopt the 5:2 intermittent fasting diet of Doctor Moseley, rather than a full Newcastle reversal scheme of Prof Taylor. He combined the diet with low carb and with HIT training every day. The results are a text book example of how to reverse diabetes.

Low Carb (50-60 grams per day)
4 days of 12-15 min HIT per week
3 days  of 40 minute weight lifting sessions per week
5:2 Intermittent fasting diet.
Plenty of Low Carb Australian Beer!

Date Fasting Sugar mmol/L Weight Kg Blood Pressure mm hg
Week1 7.5 82 133 
Week2 6.6 80 123
Week3 6.6 79 122
Week4 6.5 78 122
Week5 5.6 76 131 (sick - no HIT)
Week6 5.3 75 123
Week7 4.9 74 120
Week8 4.7 73.5 120
Week9 4.5 73 119

WOW! - Gordon. Joe only had mild diabetes. But he killed it completely with HIT, Low Carb and 5:2 fasting and Australian low carb beer in 9 weeks! (I have seen copies of his lab results). He used a Low Carb HIT 5:2 Newcastle reversal. Or putting it another way, he used a Carb Zero 5:2 Newcastle reversal. Very effective - so long as you are 18% above normal BMI to begin with. 

There is absolutely no drug that can do that!

I recommend moderate intensity exercise (brisk walking upon a treadmill). But Joe's results indicate that high intensity works just as well (as do the results of Mark Quade - see Testimonials). So at the end of the day you just have to burn off the carb grams that you eat it appears - one way or another (with moderate or high intensity exercise).

Vikas Singh Thakur's Astonishing Type 2 Diabetic Cure

Vikas has the most astonishing story that I could hardly believe before I saw his lab results.

Vikas was diagnosed on 15th Jan 2015. He was continuously so tired that he could not even walk 100 meters. His fasting sugar was 200 mg/dl and his post prandial sugar was typically 265 mg/dl. His HbA1c was 10.4%. His Vitamin D was only 12 (should be between 75 and 200). His doctor instructed him to start taking insulin immediately and he refused. Instead he took 3 diabetes tablets daily (Voglibose, Metformin and Gemer P1 - which is a combination of Pioglitazone, Glimepiride and Metformin).

Then he read this website and decided to go for it. His regime was 1 hour of brisk walking every day in hard sunlight after lunch and a 1 hour intensive workout in the gym along with the 3 tablets and a hell of a lot of Vitamin D (around 10,000 IU per day!) Then after a mere 10 days on this regime his HbA1c came down to 8.7%. He continued this regime for a further 20 days and on 15th Feb his HbA1c was 5.1%, his fasting sugar was 96 mg/dl and his post prandial sugar was 103 mg/dl. His doctor then reduced his diabetic medication to one tablet. So if this is to be believed then he reduced his HbA1c from 10.4% to 5.1% in 30 days. The reason that I have included Vikas' figures on the home page of this site is that first of all he sent me all 3 of his blood test results for Jan15, Jan26 and Feb15, and secondly I have now realised that HbA1c is not a 3 month blood sugar average, but is actually a 4 week blood sugar average weighted toward the most recent 2 weeks. This is very well explained on the American Diabetes Association website at...

"Hb = hemoglobin, the compound in the red blood cells that transports oxygen. Hemoglobin occurs in several variants; the one which composes about 90% of the total is known as hemoglobin A. A1c is a specific subtype of hemoglobin A. The 1 is actually a subscript to the A, and the c is a subscript to the 1. "Hemoglobin" is also spelled "haemoglobin", depending on your geographic allegiance.

Glucose binds slowly to hemoglobin A, forming the A1c subtype. The reverse reaction, or decomposition, proceeds relatively slowly, so any buildup persists for roughly 4 weeks. Because of the reverse reaction, the actual HbA1c level is strongly weighted toward the present. Some of the HbA1c is also removed when erythrocytes (red blood cells) are recycled after their normal lifetime of about 90-120 days. These factors combine so that the HbA1c level represents the average blood glucose level of approximately the past 4 weeks, strongly weighted toward the most recent 2 weeks. It is almost entirely insensitive to blood glucose levels more than 4 weeks previous.

In non-diabetic persons, the formation, decomposition and destruction of HbA1c reach a steady state with about 3.0% to 6.5% of the hemoglobin being the A1c subtype. Most diabetic individuals have a higher average bG level than non-diabetics, resulting in a higher HbA1c level. The actual HbA1c level can be used as an indicator of the average recent blood glucose level. This in turn indicates the possible level of glycation damage to tissues, and thus of diabetic complications, if continued for years."

With this new understanding of the true meaning of HbA1c, Vikas' figures are completely credible. So if you throw the kitchen sink at type 2. If you take the medication and if you go zero or negative carb by walking off all the carb grams you ingest and if you add some high intensity training 3x a week, then you may, like Vikas, be able to kill it dead in 30 days! 

Do not do High Intensity Training on the same muscle group every day. Do it every other day at most or it becomes counter productive. The muscles need to recover and rebuild themselves during the day after each session.

My Type 2 Diabetic Cure

I was diagnosed on November28, 2012, with a spot sugar of at 23 mmol/l (414 mg/dl), a fasting sugar of 18.0 mmol/L (324 mg/dl) and an HbA1c of 11.4% and BMI of 26.7. I had been extra thirsty for two years and had had neuralgia in the 4th toe of my right foot for 12 months - which I mistook for an in growing toenail. So I was very badly diabetic type 2. I had plenty of insulin but no glycogen storage space in my muscles and I had significant insulin resistance (I still have no idea what the real cause of this is. It is initiallly caused by high sugar and high insulin. But reducing them both back to normal for 2 years in my case has not completely fixed it - although it has improved it. Insulin resistance is not caused by microvascular capillary atherosclerosis caused by AGEs - Advanced Glycation End products - because some severe diabetics just do not get this and therefore have no peripheral neuralgia).

Here is a letter from my Doctor confirming my journey...


Private & Confidential

19 December 2013

Mr Gordon Ritchie

By Email:

Dear Mr Ritchie,

It was a pleasure to catch up with you again the other day.  I thought the research you have performed in relation to diabetes and muscle mass was very interesting.  You have successfully cured the diabetes which was identified in November 2012 by a combination of diet and exercise.  Originally the random blood glucose was 18 with a haemoglobin A1c of 11.4% (101 mmol/mol).  You told me that you had also been found to be deficient in vitamin D and had been taking a supplement, although at a relatively low dose by the sounds of things. 

I am pleased to inform you that your haemoglobin A1c is now 5.3% (35 mmol/mol).  This is well within the normal limits.  Your lipid profile is favourable with regards to future risks of heart disease with a total cholesterol of 3.9, 31% healthy HDL (absolute value 1.2), leaving an LDL of 2.2.  The only fly in the ointment is the vitamin D level is still low at 36.

Congratulations.  You know that you need to keep it up.  I think you need a significantly increased dose of vitamin D and would suggest for a month that you take 2000 international units daily (available over the counter) before reducing the dose back to 1000 international units daily.

Merry Christmas and happy New Year.

Best wishes.

Yours sincerely,


GMC reference number 2709985


Here are my latest blood test results showing my HbA1c on 2015July20 at 5.1% or 32 mmol/mol and my Vitamin D at 143 nmol/L. I had been taking 5,000 IU of Vitamin D3 per day for several months.